Like today's Portland cement (one of the primary components of modern concrete), ancient Roman concrete is essentially a mixture of semi-liquid mortar and aggregate. Portland cement is usually made by heating limestone and clay (as well as sandstone, ash, gypsum, and iron) in a kiln. The resulting clinker is then ground into a fine powder, adding only a touch of gypsum - it is better to get a smooth and flat surface. But the aggregate used to make Roman concrete was made from fist-sized pieces of stone or brick. p>
concrete wall books. For burial structures that could have survived for a long time without falling into ruin. He recommended that the walls be at least two feet thick, either of "square red stone or of brick or lava laid at intervals". Bricks or volcanic rocks must be attached to a mortar consisting of slaked lime, porous pieces of glass, and crystals from volcanic eruptions (known as volcanic tephra). p> tomb of a gentleman reveals new secrets. Ultra-strong concrete of ancient Rome. A 2017 study found Olson
Jackson for example, he and several colleagues analyzed the mortar used in concrete to form Trajan's Markets, which were built between AD 100 and 110 (probably the world's oldest shopping mall). They were particularly interested" The "glue" used in the bonding phase of the material: Calcium - Aluminum - Silicate - Hydrate (CASH), reinforced with strattlegate crystals. They found that stratonite crystals prevented the formation of microcracks in the mortar, which could lead to larger fractures in the structures. p> Advertising
In 2017, Jackson wrote an article analyzing concrete.The ruins of seawalls along the shores of the Italian Mediterranean, which have withstood 2,000 years despite the harsh sea environment.Continuous waves of saltwater hitting the walls have turned modern concrete walls into ruins A long time ago, but it seems that c Roman sea urchins are getting stronger. p>
Jackson and his colleagues realized the secret. he. Lifespan was a special instruction that included a mixture of rare crystals and porous minerals. In particular, exposure to seawater causes chemical reactions within the concrete, causing crystals of serrated aluminum to form from phillipsite, a common mineral found in volcanic ash. The crystals adhered to the rocks again prevent the formation and spread of cracks that would weaken the structures.
So it was only natural that Jackson was fascinated by the tomb of Caecilia Metella, who was widely known to be one of them. The best-preserved Apian Jackson Road artifact visited the cemetery in June 2006, when he took small samples of mortar for analysis. Although the day of his visit was very hot, he remembered that when he entered the corridor of the tomb, the air was very cold and humid. “It was very calm, except for the pigeons fluttering in the open center of the circular structure,” Jackson said. , [and his wife] Crassus." Src="https://safirsoft.com/picsbody/2201/12874-2.jpg"alt="https://safirsoft.com tomb of a gentleman reveals new secrets of the very strong concrete of ancient Rome" srcset="https://cdn . from Crassus.” Carole Raddato / CC BY -SA 2.0
Almost nothing is known about Caecilia Metella, a noble woman whose remains are buried in a tomb, except that she was the daughter of the Roman consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus. Marcus married Licinius Crassus, whose father was Crassus. (of the same name) part of the First Triumvirate, together with Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great, and possibly his son - also known as Marcus Licinius Crassus - because he led historians to trace his lineage. between 30 and 10 B.C.It does, but it probably did not belong to that man as it dates back to between A.D. 180 and 190. Additionally, cremation at the time of the lady's death was one of the most common burial practices, Thus historians believe that the tomb cell may have contained a burial urn rather than a coffin.
Is.The cemetery itself is most popular among scholars such as Jackson and his colleagues.The tomb is located on top of a hill.A round cylindrical plaza sits atop a square platform with A fortress attached to the back, built in the 14th century. The exterior bears the The plaque inscription, “To Caecilia Metella, daughter of Quentus Creticus [and his wife] Crassus.” reveals a new super-strong concrete from ancient Rome “srcset=" https://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/ ConcreteCROP.jpg 2x "> Zoom Tombstones: Marie Jackson
It is proposed in part on tuff (compacted volcanic ash) and lava rocks from an ancient stream that once covered the area about 260,000 years ago. Many of them form layers of thick concrete, surrounded by limestone blocks as a framework, while the concrete layers form and solidify. The walls of the tower are 24 feet thick. At first there was a conical mound above it, but later there was a conical mound on which the battlements were replaced.
To get a closer look at the exact structure of the tomb's mortars, Jackson worked with MIT colleagues Linda Seymour and Admir Masek, as well as Nobumichi Tamura of Lawrence Berkeley Lab. Tamura analyzed the samples in an advanced light source, which helped them identify the different minerals in the samples and their orientation. The ALS beamline produces powerful X-ray beams as small as one micron in size that can penetrate the full thickness of samples in each tamura. The team also scanned the samples using a scanning electron microscope.
They found that the mortar for the tombs was similar to the mortar used on the walls of Trajan's Markets: volcanic tephra from a lava Russian Pozzolan Stream, which are connected to each other. Pieces of bricks and lava clusters. However, the tephra used in the tomb slurry contained more potassium-rich leucite. Over the centuries, rainwater and groundwater flowed through the tomb walls, dissolving leucite and releasing potassium. This would be a disaster in modern concrete and would cause small cracks and major damage to the structure. p>
This clearly did not happen in the case of the grave. but why? Jackson and colleagues found that the potassium in the mortar, in turn, dissolves and effectively reconstitutes the C-A-S-H bonding phase. Some areas remained intact even after 2,000 years, while others appeared drier and showed signs of cleavage. In fact, the structure was somewhat similar to that of nanocrystals. p> Zoom/scan electron microscope image of buried mortars. Marie Jackson
"The surface areas in the ancient Roman concrete of the Cecilia Metella cemetery appear to be constantly changing through long-term reconstruction." These processes improve surface areas and may help improve mechanical performance and the resistance of old materials to fracture.
The closer we get to being able to reproduce these qualities in concrete today - such as finding a suitable substitute (such as coal ash) for very rare Roman igneous rocks, can reduce energy emissions by up to 85% and improve concrete production. “Focusing on modern concrete design with continuous reinforcement surface areas could provide us with another strategy to improve concrete. Modern building materials,” Musk said. Doing so by incorporating time-proven 'Roman wisdom' provides a sustainable strategy that can dramatically improve the lifespan of our modern solutions.
DOI: Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 2021 10.1111 / jace.18133 (about the DOI).
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