Why prostate cancer is so hard to study—and how researchers get over it.
Prostate cancer is a contradiction. It has one of the highest survival rates among cancers, yet it is the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States among people with prostate cancer (after lung cancer). Localized prostate cancer, which is only present in the same limb, can be treated. But when it spreads and spreads beyond the prostate, it becomes incurable and leads to death.
This complicates the study. How do you understand something that is easy to treat and impossible to treat? Researchers tackling the paradox are using techniques such as imaging, genetic sequencing, big data and artificial intelligence to alter outcomes for patients with a wide range of cancer severity. From understanding what initially develops cancer to identifying new drugs and new treatments - every innovation is an opportunity to save lives. Here we look at a number of projects underway around the world that could one day change the prospect of treating prostate cancer.
Identify the discrepancy
The 10-year life expectancy for localized prostate cancer is approximately 98%. Curable Many prostate tumors grow very slowly and are not even threatening - they are only monitored to make sure there is no threat. "You're more likely to die of prostate cancer than you are of prostate cancer," says Dr. Isla Gravey, director of research at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). But when cancer spreads, its prognosis changes completely. Treatment can improve the patient's quality of life and extend his life, but eventually the cancer becomes resistant to all treatments and becomes fatal. “For most [prostate] cancers, when they are diagnosed because you have symptoms, it is often a sign that your condition is really advanced. If the pain is blood, if you have trouble urinating or have difficulty emptying your bladder, you probably have advanced cancer. In other words, this danger is accompanied by the fact that there are no symptoms until it is too late for treatment. src = "https://safirsoft.com/picsbody/2109 / 10084-1.jpg" alt = "https://safirsoft.com Challenge to find new tools to fight prostate cancer" srcset = "https://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp-content/uploads/ 2021/09 / GettyImages-1321980249.jpg 2x "> Zoom in / Find prostate cancer is very important for managing the disease before it metastasizes. Getty Images
Meanwhile, the outbreak is staggering. One in eight people with prostate cancer (depending on who you ask) will be diagnosed during their lifetime. So far in 2021, the United States has seen approximately 248,530 new cases and about 34,130 deaths.
Estimates of the percentage of metastatic cancers range from 5 to 10 percent, but the large number of general cases means that even low-level estimates ultimately mean large cancers that are resistant to treatment. And the CDC says the rate is on the rise, which means it's even more important to the science of solving the problem of metastatic, incurable prostate cancer.
Understanding Underlying Causes
"For cancer researchers in general, we're always looking for the roots. Where to start, what cells to start with, and how to" do normal cell escape processes To escape the immune system or attack areas it shouldn't be? “Just like with other cancers, the whole idea is to better understand the biology of prostate tumors so you can find the Achilles heel of this tumor,” says Dr. Grauwe of UCLA. “The challenge that Grauy tells Ars is that for a long time, research has focused About why prostate cancer grows on inactive (or slow-moving) versions of the treatable disease Additional surgery removed slow-growing tumors, giving researchers more access to these tissue samples Metastatic patients underwent fewer surgeries because their cancer had spread to "Other parts of their bodies, so these samples were not studied. At least half of them had cancer at the time of diagnosis. They weren't candidates for surgery, so we didn't take their tissues," he said. "Obtaining enough tissue from a metastatic lesion is a challenge. Recent advances in technology have changed This fact.For the past decade, genome sequencing technology has allowed scientists to classify and analyze small amounts of tissue.Doctors can now use a tiny needle to collect a 'very small piece of tissue' and make a pattern change, Garvey says. In the fatal prostate cancer study.Advertisement
A Look at Prostate Stem Cells
One can now ask whether there are factors that can detect high-risk tumors early. Garaway compares these small samples of circulating cancer cells to non-cancerous prostate tissue, in the hope that they will provide clues to the cause of past aggressive behavior. in the prostate, which can produce any type of cell in this tissue (although, unlike embryonic stem cells, they cannot produce other tissues). But stem cells also appear in prostate tumors. Garravi hypothesizes that these prostate stem cells may have properties that make tumors more dangerous. "Comparing the genes active in both prostate stem cells and cancers" has given us insights into how these more aggressive cancers select for the characteristics of benign stem cells. “Early embryonic features,” he says, “can facilitate their invasion and spread of stem cells.” And they are more resistant. They can survive things that distinct cells cannot survive. "They are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy and can survive DNA damage," says Garraway. "We think activation of these survival mechanisms supports tumor emergence."
This research is still in its infancy. How to do research and discovery, but for the time being should not be considered as a potential new treatment. "It contributes to Prostate Cancer General Science. Our focus is more on understanding the tumor biology of these invasive cells.” Prostate cancer, which is metastatic, is incurable. We need to understand who, why and how.”
The challenge of finding new tools to fight prostate cancer
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