Larger wild fish produce stronger and stronger spinning cells to better repel predators.
You will meet a humble wild fish, an ugly, gray, eel-like creature known as the "snoring snake" due to its unique defense mechanisms. In less than a second, this fish can release an entire liter of sticky sludge from its pores all over its body. It is enough, for example, to block the gills of a predatory shark and strangle a potential predator. A new article published in Current Biology reports that sludge produced by large fish contains much larger cells than sludge produced by small fish - an unusual example of cell size with body size in nature.
As previously reported, scientists have been studying hagfish sludge for years because it is unusual. It's not like mucus that dries up and hardens over time. Hagfish sludge remains sticky, giving it a semi-solid gelatinous consistency. This is because of the long, thread-like fibers in the sludge, as well as the proteins and sugars that make up myosin, which is another major component. These fibers come in a "frame" that looks like balls of yarn. When a greyhound is killed by a bullet, the muscle twists and fuses with the brine, exploding at more than 10,000 times its original size. In 2016, a group of Swiss researchers studied the unusual properties of fish sludge fluid, focusing in particular on how these properties have two distinct benefits: helping the animal defend itself against predators and attaching itself to escape the sludge. They found that different types of fluid flow affect the overall viscosity of the sludge. A flowing fluid is basically a set of layers that pass through each other. The faster one layer slides over the other, the greater the resistance, and the slower the slip, the lower the resistance. As I wrote for Gizmodo at the time:
Hagfish sludge is an example of a non-Newtonian fluid, in which viscosity is applied in response to stress or a change in shear strength. ...use pressure or shear force to increase viscosity—in the case of ketchup, pudding, fruit juice, or a classic mixture of water and cornstarch called "obleck"—or reduce it, like the drip-free paint that easily kills he-she. , but it becomes more sticky when placed on the wall.
Hagfish sludge can be both. The suction feeding used by many bear hunters appears to create a one-way flow. Prolonged pressure of the suction current increases the viscosity of tomatoes, it is better to suffocate predators by clogging the gills. But when the gull tries to escape from the sludge, its movement causes the shear to become thinner, which actually reduces the viscosity of the sludge and makes it easier to escape. In fact, the sludge network is rapidly destroyed by the shear thinning stream.
Scientists are still learning the exact mechanism by which spores produce fish. Previous work has shown that seawater is essential for sludge formation, and that seawater ions can spontaneously unlock if ions in seawater mix with the adhesives that hold the fibrous threads in the tires. But time is also important. For example, a 2014 study found that any automatic opening of sticks takes a few minutes—however, seagulls lay down sludge in about 0.4 seconds. It was suggested that the turbulent flow of water (in particular, such a turbulent drag) is an essential factor. The movement of the water surrounding the attack of predators prevents them from twisting. The leather has a loose end. Pulling it will loosen it. But drawing in running water as a fisherman makes this process happen faster.Read more about this stretch that helps shark sludge catchers fast. Sludge for Years For example, in 2012, when he was at a college golf club, Fadge Lab successfully removed herring sludge, dissolved it into a liquid, and then spun it like spinning silk into a tight thread. and at the same time stretch 'roundness'. These threads could replace the oil fibers currently used in helmets or collar jackets, among other potential applications. Sampling 19 different species of fish large and small, taking microscopic images, and measuring Accurately the size and shape of the spinning cells in those images.The resulting database includes measurements of more than 11,700 cells harvested from 87 wild fish (the latter ranged from 10 to 80 cm in length).Ranging from 10 to 128 cm. "src="https://safirsoft.com/picsbody/2110/ 10764-1.jpg "alt=" https://safirsoft.com Scientists are still learning new and exciting things about Googoosh sludge "srcset=" https://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/ hagfish2.jpg 2x "> Magnification / Hagfish gland cells vary 50 times in size because their body length is between 10 and 128 cm. Yu Zang et al. They found that these spinning cells were much larger than similar cells in vertebrates - in fact larger than abdominal fat cells in elephants. There are other examples of this type of scaling in nature. It shows a scaling score of about 0.35, which is a mass that produces certain species of deadly silk spiders with a body mass between 0.37 and 0.39, but represents the scaling of Fudge et al. in our spinning cells. Their sea urchin was found to be 0.55, which is much larger than other known scales in vertebrates. She examined the size of the crab gland's filament cells — which make silk threads and strengthen fish sludge — and found that they increased with body size. This means that in the fish evolution tree, all large species are formed despite large spinning cells. The truth is that they are far from each other. Especially how it changes with body size. "Our study shows that body size interactions with predators cause profound changes in the defensive sludge of wild fish, and these changes can be observed at both the cellular and subcellular levels." p>
Models The team showed that the filaments in the larger cells of the big fish became thicker and longer, which could produce filaments 4 micrometers thick and 20 cm long, the largest intracellular fibers known in animals consisting of creatine fibers and spider silk comparable and, like those samples, filaments in hedgehog sludge depend on the coordination of a large number of cells. They undergo an indistinct transition, in which [the fibers] condense separately with their neighbors and reach a much larger superstructure of the intracellular fibers. p>
So what is this scaling advantage—and larger strands—could create an evolutionary advantage? “There are several ways that larger sutures are good for larger fish,” Fudge said. Thicker filaments can be more resistant before breaking , making the sludge stronger and more able to survive on the gills of a large, robust fisherman. Longer lines have a similar advantage because they can extend greater distances between the gill arches of larger predators.” Longer lines are also more likely to produce more sludge and be more used as a defensive agent. Against larger predators.
Future studies of how each filament coil of such a complex structure would be concentrated in a small cell, according to U.
DOI: Current Biology, 2021. 10.1016 / j.cub.2021.08.066 (about DOIs).>
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