If the researchers are right, globular clusters may be filled with black holes.
As we carefully map the stars of the Milky Way, we can identify features that tell their history. These include local details, such as stars that have passed through an area where something might discover Earth. This includes much larger structures, such as the footprints of stars left by smaller galaxies and merging with us. p>
Now, a team of researchers has proposed a very clear mechanism: Over time, clusters of all-star spewing out clusters of stars may be dominated by black holes.
Globular clusters are dense groups of stars that orbit the Milky Way. They are related by their mutual attraction. Complex interactions inevitably cause some stars to be pulled apart, but not very quickly, making the clusters very long. The researchers began by examining an unusual globular cluster called a Palomar. 5. It has wide tails of lost stars and a relatively low total mass, which causes it to spread out compared to the other clusters we studied. The lower density of Palomar 5 makes it easier to lose stars, but it may also be caused by the loss of previous stars and causes a few egg and chicken problems. So the researchers decided to model globular cluster evolution and try to find one that could produce something like Palomar 5. The researchers created a model that uses a group of stars and their gravitational interactions with each other and with the Milky Way as it orbits around the galactic center. With the help of some good GPUs and software, they have been able to run this simulation for billions of years. By changing the parameters, they can find out the factors associated with groups that eventually look like Palomar 5.Advertising
Reveal that this substance is the secret of black holes. When black holes remain in mass after they form—which means the supernova isn't moving enough to fly them to other parts of the galaxy—they gradually withdraw about 90% of the cluster's mass. This reduces the mass density by about three times its size, partly by injecting stars and partly by black holes that heat gas and other matter by heating it.
In the most suitable model for Palomar 5., this mass was about a quarter of the contents of those black holes, which is a total of 124. These black holes also had a greater mass than at the time of formation (about 17 times the mass of those black holes) the sun on average), indicating that they were feeding or integrating on a large scale.
The future is dark
The researchers also looked at models that did not produce a cluster similar to Palomar 5 to understand that black holes could influence the evolution of globular clusters. The main factor determining the future mass rich in black holes is their initial density. If a star cluster is dense enough, gravitational interactions tend to pull black holes apart.
If the mass traveled in this direction, it would eject more than half of its star over three billion. The time of year, this is enough to trace the stars that started this search.
In low-density clusters, black holes are located near the center, and stars appear in their place. Under certain conditions, the researchers say, the cluster can evolve to the point where it is essentially 100% a black hole and nearly all stars protrude from it.
The major weakness of the model is that it does not include the interaction of stars, black holes and gas in the cluster. The last of these factors, gas, can cause friction that can slow down objects and prevent them from escaping, but it was out of form.
On the positive side, this can be considered incorrect. The fact that tails are mostly produced at the end of some clusters suggests that only a portion of the globular clusters in the Milky Way should have them - about four. And tracking the movement of stars within the cluster should be able to detect the effect of gravity on black holes, allowing us to estimate their number. Therefore, this idea will likely be tested before having GPUs powerful enough to run similar simulations involving gas.
Nature Astronomy, 2021.).
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