What happened? Artificial intelligence completes Beethoven's Tenth Symphony — or at least, if that piece of music seems to be completed. The world's first music show will take place on October 9, 2021.
In 1817, the Royal Philharmonic Society of London commissioned Ludwig von Beethoven to compose his Ninth and Tenth Symphonies. Complete the Ninth Symphony, which concludes the fourth movement with the familiar "Ode to Happiness" (below). Due to ill health and his subsequent death in 1927, he did not complete his Tenth Symphony. The only thing left to do is the musical designs. The Sese Karajan Institute has collaborated with a group of Playform startup scientists led by Ahmed El-Gamal. The team spent two years teaching the AI model using the complete works of Beethoven, the drawings of the Tenth Symphony he left behind, and what is known about his composition techniques. Jingle, to combine what Beethoven left behind with music made by artificial intelligence. Computer music expert Mark Gotham led the effort to copy ancient designs and tackled Beethoven's entire work to teach machine learning algorithms. The Harvard musicologist Robert Levine, who previously completed several songs for Mozart and Bach, also contributed to the project. "We talked about how we can turn the pieces of music into a complete piece of music and how artificial intelligence can help solve this puzzle, while we remain loyal to Beethoven's process and vision," El-Gamal said.
The project side required an extensive study of the designs for the Tenth Symphony to determine what Beethoven meant by this piece. Using the composer's completed works as a model, they wondered which of Beethoven's incomplete musical phrases belonged to which of the four symphonic movements. It was necessary to take very short musical sentences of a few tones and turn them into longer and more complex structures. He did this by learning how Beethoven composed his Fifth Symphony on a simple four-tone design. You also need to understand the musical form of each extended phrase — scherzo, trio, or fugue — to make sure it moves correctly.
As the project progressed, computer scientists realized that the AI
"To-do list: We had to teach the AI how to choose and coordinate the melodic line." "The AI has to learn how to put two pieces of music together. And we realized that the AI has to be able to write a code, it's the part that holds a piece of music together."
Beethoven designs image credit form: Beethoven Museum, CC BY-SA.
The team conducted its first test in the presence of reporters and, most importantly, musicologists and Beethoven experts. They were asked to see if they could tell where the composer's work ended, and the AI continued. Music experts were dumbfounded and could not determine which part was generated by the AI. Only those with a "close awareness" of the imperfect works were able to choose the parts made by AI. The experiment concluded that the algorithms worked well enough to complete Beethoven's tenth. You can find out how to select an AI piece from this short collection from Smithsonian Magazine.
Image Credit: Perrant (CC BY-SA 3.0)
Musicians and computer scientists have completed Beethoven's Tenth Symphony with the help of machine learning