The Queen of France had a secret correspondence with her famous lover, Hans-Axel von Viersen. Transfer. The beginning of the French Revolution. The French queen and her husband, King Louis XVI, were murdered by clip for 17 months in 1093. But his colorful life also included a secret affair with a Swedish counter, and historians worked hard for years to decipher the remaining characters between the two.
As usual for politically sensitive correspondence, the letters were encrypted. In the remaining fifteen letters in the collection of the National Archives of France, important sections have been edited, bringing the total to 108 illegible lines. Thanks to advanced X-ray imaging and data processing techniques, modified parts of eight of these letters have finally been revealed, according to a new article in Science Advances. This research is carried out in collaboration with the National Archives, the French Museum of Natural History and the Fondation de France. The Dauphin was still in France and visited Versailles several times after that. Her royal husband is notorious for not being able to marry for the first seven years.
Some thought Louis XVI had a medical condition that made it difficult to treat, but the Queen's brother, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II, concluded during his visit that this was largely due to his illness. The experience of the king and the lack of interest of the queen. He described the couple as "complete crooks" and the young king - let's say the Emperor's messages at home are very explicit references to what is now on social media as the practice of Mormon "soaking".
In the end the couple understood everything, and Marie Antoinette gave birth to four children, only one of whom lived to adulthood. But at the time, rumors of his infidelity spread, and von Farsen was among his rumored lovers. (Other candidates include the Duke of Orleans and Kenneth Artois.) In 1780, von Bersen applied for his extradition to the United States as an adjutant to General Rochambeau's camp, and he fought valiantly during the Siege of Yorktown. She eventually returned to France as Sweden's ambassador to Versailles and became part of the Queen's private inner circle.
When the French Revolution broke out, the royal family was placed under house arrest in 1791 in the Tuileries. Always loyal, Von Fersen helped devise a poor escape plan that led to the repatriation of the Warren royals before reaching a safe haven. During this period, the Queen and the Counts exchanged letters which are now preserved in the French National Archives. It was von Farsen's Brussels publicist who heard the news of Marie Antoinette's execution and declared her "shattered". 'and' 'tortured' by the idea that he might suspect his association with her. He survived the revolution, but also suffered a violent death: he was beaten by a Swedish mob who believed that the Swedish crown prince was among the dead. (It wasn't). src="https://safirsoft.com/picsbody/2110/10718-1.jpg" alt="https://safirsoft.com X-ray monitors portions of Marie Antoinette's letters to a number of Swedes" srcset="https://cdn.arstechnica.net/ wp-content/uploads/2021/09/marie2.jpg 2x.Public domain
The ability to read the edited portions of these characters can help researchers decipher other censored or distorted historical documents. And non-invasiveness is a powerful tool for unraveling the mysteries of the past.As previously reported, in 2016, an international team of scientists discovered a way to "unlock" the En-Jedi scroll located on the western coast of the Dead Sea, and revealed the first verses of Luticus' book..In 2019, a team used German scientists from a combination of advanced physics techniques to "unlock" ancient Egyptian papyrus, part of an extensive collection housed in the Egyptian Museum in Berlin. Their analysis showed that a seemingly blank piece on the papyrus actually contained letters that had become "invisible ink" after Centuries of exposure to light.In 2020, computed tomography enabled researchers to perform a cadaver Postmortem on the remains of a mummified Egyptian cat.READ MORE Physicists Discover Hidden Text on Egyptian Papyrus
Earlier this year, we reported that scientists used multispectral imaging in four blank Dead Sea scrolls and found that the scrolls contain hidden text. Excerpts from the book of Ezekiel scholars may also have used X-ray tomography to "unlock" a 17th-century letter known as a complex folding method called a "letter lock," a type of physical encryption, to protect the contents from prying eyes. So when Fabian Potter and some of his colleagues at the Natural History Museum Research Center (CRCC) were tasked with revealing parts of the censored letters between Marie Antoinette and von Farsen, they naturally used the technique that turned out to be a similar one. The challenge was to separate the ink used for the original text from the ink used to distort it. Thus, the first phase of the project involves testing several potential technologies that may be able to distinguish between the physical or chemical properties of different inks to see if sufficient contrast can be achieved to separate them.Advertising
Visible and infrared spectroscopic imaging initially looked promising. Unfortunately, black ink absorbs almost all of the light in the visible range, and in the NIR range, the two inks are largely transparent. They are too similar to get any specific results. Poutier et al. They obtained the best results using X-ray spectroscopy (XRF) in micro-scan mode, and their initial analysis showed that all letters (and revisions) were written in scallop ink. The metal component is mainly iron, but other metals (such as copper and zinc) can enter as impurities during the preparation of the ink. They can provide different types of signatures to distinguish between different inks.Zoom in / (top) The first page of a letter between Marie Antoinette and Axel von Farsen. (Bottom) Initial map of the inks used. Unedited text: "non pas sans vous." Anne Michelin et al., 2021
XRF Imaging provided useful basemaps, but the team still needed to use custom imaging processing and other strategies in specific cases to read the rewritten text—including those on both sides of the paper where the rewritten portions were written. . To date, Putti et al. They were able to "monitor" eight of the 15 edited messages. "In these cases, both inks (rewriting and footnote) appear to have similar combinations, so it is impossible to read the edited portions by processing the data described in this article," the authors wrote.
But they were able to conclude that von Farsen might have been censoring the letters, and that the Queen's letters to von Farsen were in fact copies made by Kent (a common practice at the time). "He decided to change a number of sections of his letters rather than delete them, indicating that he wanted to protect the Queen's honor (or perhaps for her own benefit)," the authors wrote. "These reviews are a way to identify areas that I consider special." 12, 1791, was the phrase "Farewell, my dear friend, I will not cease to worship you." There are many examples of words with similar letters ("lover", "nice friend", "praise", "crazy") indicating emotional attachment, but the authors are careful not to make a hypothesis that goes beyond the evidence.
"Censored readers cannot really know the nature of their feelings because the interpretation of texts is always called into question." "But for the historian, this correspondence is a precious testament to the turbulent times and the way in which tragic political events alter sentiments and intensify sentiments visible, especially in the personal writings here. Sections of the Redaction." p>
DOI: Science Advances, 2021. 10.1126 / sciadv.abg4266 (about DOIs).
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