She died the case "opened a new phase of forensic toxicology and chemistry in Portugal." Paris in Porto, Portugal. Sampaio Jr., the son of a wealthy and highly respected linen merchant, showed signs of poisoning in the last hours of his life, including blood in his vomit. She was attended by her brother-in-law, a doctor named Vicente Urbino de Freitas.

However, Sampaio Jr. was buried without incident, and the family may have mourned their loss and survived. But in late March, Sampaio's son Jr. and two sisters suddenly fell ill after eating almonds with alcohol, coconut cake and chocolate that arrived at Sampaio's home on Flores Street in a mysterious package. Children's Uncle, De Veritas, described Lemon Balm. As the girls recovered, 12-year-old Mario Guillermo Agosto de Sampaio died of convulsions and seizures on April 2.

Once again, the symptoms matched the poisoning, and two frittatas were soon suspected. Arrested, tried and convicted in 1893, he remained innocent until the end of his life. The famous "Flores Street crime" made headlines around the world. More than 130 years later, this case stunned Ricardo Jorge Denis-Olivera, a forensic toxicologist at the University of Porto, as it led to forensic toxicology research in Portugal and continues to inform current Portuguese forensic trends. It's also a story of hell: Denis-Olivera wrote: "It sure is a good movie.

Denis-Olivera has spent the past 14 years reviewing historical artifacts, trial transcripts, newspaper reports. From around the world, even interviewing With living relatives of the main characters. He summarized his findings in three separate articles. The first case, published in 2018, presented the basic facts of the case. The second, published in 2019, analyzed all relevant and contradictory evidence from the trial. Denis-Olivera then examined the evidence Conflicting toxicity in a third paper published in May 2021 in the Journal of Legal Science Research, in which he defended the professional reputation of his compatriots in the nineteenth century.

Two mysterious deaths

Born on Flores Street in Porto In 1849, de Freitas married Maria das Dorset Pasto Sampaio in 1877, during which time he taught at the Porto School of Medicine and Surgery.Over the years, he gained professional distinction through important studies in the field of skin, especially the treatment of leprosy and syphilis.Perhaps he was De Freitas hopes to one day inherit the great fortune his wife has inherited. The couple's three children - an older boy named Guillermo - stood in his way when he died young. The girl and Sampaio Jr mentioned above - plus the three grandchildren of "src=" picsbody / 2201 / 12880-1.jpg "alt=" srcset=" content/uploads/2022/01/floresF2019.jpg 2x ">Enlarged/restored images of Maria Carolina Bastos Sampaio and Jose Antonio Sampaio, mother-in-law and father-in-law RJ Denis-Olivera, 2018

Young Sampaio's wife died leaving him with two young daughters, living with their grandparents while their father became a traveling bohemian. Faced with his father's opposition, he met an English woman named Lottie Carter, who kept him in a nightclub in Lisbon. While in Lisbon, he received a mysterious parcel containing vials apparently containing medicines to treat the disease, and Sampaio Jr., who did not know the sender, refused. treatment and told Carter he was skeptical. Prusic acid (a strong toxic substance).

In December 1889, Sampaio Jr. and Carter returned to Porto and moved there. Paris Grand Hotel December 28 Sampaio Junior had lunch with Devretas and fell ill the next day. While he was initially thought to have a cold, his condition worsened and de Freitas was called in for a consultation. DiFritas gave her brother-in-law an injection of pilocarpine (now a common treatment for glaucoma). Vision and vomiting are among other symptoms. However, de Freitas insisted that he be given a second injection. As Sampaio Jr. continues to deteriorate. DiFritas described his last pilocarpine injection on the afternoon of January 2 and mixed the dye with his back to the others in the room. Ask another doctor to inject the vaccine.

He quickly developed a nasty black spot at the injection site. Sampaio Jr. began vomiting profusely and eventually died around 6 pm. Before doing so, he told Carter that he was convinced that the pilocarpine injection had made him ill. DiFritas insisted on eliminating vomiting. When the hotelier lamented the young man's death, de Freitas apparently told her that her son-in-law was "crazy, vicious and ashamed of embarrassing the family," adding, "Didn't you pay attention to the evidence? .psychic? So is his whole family. They all die the same way." Bertha Fernanda Sampaio, the suspect's nephew and nieces." src="" alt=""Expert Warfare": a review of the famous poison Street in 19th century Flores srcset = "https://cdn. arstechnica. net / wp-content / uploads / 2022/01 / floresB2018.jpg 2x "> Zoom / Images retrieved (a) Mario Gilherme Augusto de Sampaio, (b) Maria Augusta Sampaio and (c) Bertha Fernanda Sampaio - suspect nephew and Two nieces.RG Dinis-Oliveira, 2019

Then three children fell ill, 12-year-old Mario had a seizure and eventually fell into a coma and died.The two girls had similar but less severe symptoms - probably because they ate less almonds and cake.One of the doctors called for a consultation was suspected of opium or belladonna poisoning.

Due to the suspicious death of the young Mario, Sampaio Jr.'s remains were exhumed for autopsy.However, after three months on the ground, the body was in a state So advanced from decomposition that it was not possible to diagnose any damage that might have led to his death, and no toxic substances were found in the remains of the liquid.The men's stomachs, intestines, lungs and heart.The same was done for Mario's remains, and this time Experts found evidence of the deadly levels From morphine and dolphin (toxic plant alkaloids) as well as the opium alkaloid called Narci Nin in viscera and urine.

He was arrested on April 16, 1890, and charged with the murder and poisoning of Mario. There were also rumors that de Freitas had also poisoned a rival banker and professor at the Porto School of Medicine and Surgery who had died three years earlier, although no evidence has been provided to substantiate these rumors. Flores Street in Porto, where 12-year-old Mario died." src="" alt=""The War of Experts": A review of Bad poisoning on Flores Street in the Nineteenth Century" srcset="https://cdn.arstechnica. net / wp-content / uploads / 2022/01 / floresJ2018.jpg 2x "> Zoom / Then and Now: The exterior of the Sampaio family home on Flores Street in Porto, where 12-year-old Mario died. RJ Dinis-Oliveira, 2018

century Trial

The attorney general has filed a relatively damning case. A police investigation revealed that de Freitas had purchased a box of almonds and a chocolate chip cookie during a visit to Lisbon in March 1890. The pastry clerk recognized him. The concierge of the Lisbon hotel where de Freitas was testified that the doctor asked him where he could buy almonds for his "fiancée". He then ostensibly appeared as Eduardo Motta and persuaded a businessman he met on the train to mail the parcel to his wife's home in Porto, claiming to humiliate himself. During the trial, merchant de Freitas identified him as a man whom he identifies as Mota.

Devritas himself agreed that his nephew had been poisoned, "but there was no crime." He alleged that "two" asked the merchant to send a package of candy. De Freitas said he went to Lisbon on March 6 to meet a married woman and returned the same day. He returned to Lisbon on 7-8 March and appears to have consulted with his friend and colleague Francisco Adolfo Coelho about the medical translation. However, Coelho denied the allegations in court, and testified that de Freitas actually wrote him a letter asking him to lie about it if the police questioned him. (He even kept the letter.)


De Freitas' grieving mother-in-law, Maria Carolina Pasta Sampaio, was surely convinced of his guilt. He testified that de Freitas had asked him to lie about treating and prescribing an enema to the children, as well as trying to suspect his uncle, who lives in Lisbon. But de Freitas' wife, Maria, remained faithful and loyal throughout the trial, crying and fainting as the sentence was read.

De Freitas was sentenced to eight years in prison in Lisbon and then to 20 years in prison. In exile, his son, Urbino Emilio Pasto de Sampaio de Freitas, committed suicide in disgrace over his father's conviction. While Maria's family offered her a pension, she refused it due to loss of income. De Freitas finally returned to Portugal in 1913 to prove his innocence, but died shortly thereafter of pneumonia and was still awaiting trial. Maria de Freitas lived another 43 years and died in 1956 at the age of 97. Picture depicting the trial of Vicente Orbino Fritas.poisoning on Flores Street in the 19th century" srcset="https://cdn. 2022 /01/floresC2021.jpg 2x "> Zoom/photo depicting the trial of Vicente Urbino de Freitas. c. Dinis-Oliveira, 2021

However, the verdict was not unanimous, so not all jurors were convinced that de Freitas was guilty. Some of the testimonies were contradictory, especially as to whether de Freitas was in Lisbon or Porto on an important date on March 28. His motive was the personal hostility of the accused. Finally, there has been significant disagreement over the various toxicological reports.

War of Experts

Was Defritas a "monster" really responsible for the killing, or a martyr against zeal as well. Prosecution? According to Denis Oliveira, this is a question that has a relatively simple answer today, given modern toxicological methods. But in the late 1800s, Denis-Oliveras wrote in his 2018 paper: "The undeniable diagnosis of morphine, narcinin, and dolphin seemed rather difficult given the scientific advances of the time." The expert evidence presented at the trial was questioned by the lawyer's judge at the time, who noted a lack of information from foreign toxicologists. So many foreign Experts were invited to the test, including Louis Levine, who pioneered the study of psychedelic plants. Unfortunately, “all these consultations were unfavorable to the work and conclusions of the official experts, and were widely attributed to errors (“unjustified”) and the presence of decay products seemingly mistaken as toxic plant alkaloids, as well as misuse and misunderstanding of the use of analytical methods. Denis Oliver wrote in his 2021 paper. Many dismissed the findings of morphine and dolphin in Mario's guts and vomit. He was instrumental in assessing the forensic evidence in this case. "src=" picsbody / 2201 / 12880-5.jpg "alt=" "The War of Experts": an overview of the infamous poisoning on Flores Street in the 19th century "srcset=" https://cdn 2x"> Zoom/Images retrieved from Antonio Joaquim Ferreira da Silva, the chemist who played a key role in assessing the forensic evidence in this case. RJ Denis-Olivera Denis-Oliveras does not agree with this description of the work of the Portuguese experts, and much of this latter article focuses on the work of Antonio Joaquim Ferreira da Silva, who was chained to his laboratory during the three years between de Freitas' arrest.His analysis also concluded that the young Mario Sampaio died of morphine and dolphin poisoning.) During the study, da Silva made many discoveries, including describing new reactions to cocaine, serine and alkaloids, for example, some of these discoveries were made by his peers at the Paris Academy of Sciences.

"He was a good toxicologist," Oliveras wrote, despite being relentlessly attacked His scientific reputation was questioned during the trial. In fact, da Silva's attempt "opened a new phase of forensic toxicology and chemistry in Portugal." Denis Oliveiras concludes, "The Porto Experts did a remarkable job which is almost impossible to refute in light of the prevailing knowledge at the time." Tighten According to Denis Oliveiras. He suggests that more insight could be gained if the remains of at least one potential victim are identified. The good news is that Dinis-Oliveiras has finally tracked down the body of Sampaio Jr. In 2020 he was able to perform a new autopsy. DNA analysis for body confirmation and toxicity tests are done for morphine, dolphin, or narcinin. The results will be reported in the next article.

DOI: Legal Science Research, 2021. 10.1080/20961790.2021.1898079 (About DOIs).

DOI: Legal Science Research, 2019. 10.1080 / 20961790.2019.1682218 (about DOIs).

DOI: Legal Science Research, 2018. 10.1080 / 20961790.2018.1534538 (A). Learn the secrets of dark matter with Ars and Dr. Paul Satter

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