https://safirsoft.com The ancient origin of glass
The rich history of glass is traced using archeology and modern materials science.

Today, glass is a popular thing on kitchen shelves. But early on in history, glass pleased royalty.

Thousands of years ago, the pharaohs of ancient Egypt surrounded themselves with this material, even at death, leaving amazing specimens for archaeologists to discover. King Tutankhamun's tomb had an ornate writing board and two blue headrests made of solid glass that probably supported the sleeping royal family. His funeral mask features alternating blue glass inlays with gold framing the king's face. Purple, turquoise, yellow, red and white - excluding precious stones - gave the most prominent colours, says Andrew Shortland, an archaeologist at Cranfield University in Sherwinham, England. In the material hierarchy, glass was slightly inferior to silver and gold and had the same value as precious stones.

There are still many questions about valuable materials. Where was glass first made? How was it drawn, drawn and rejected in the ancient world? Although many things remain a mystery, materials science techniques and the re-analysis of excavated artifacts in recent decades have begun to fill in the details.

This analysis, in turn, opens the door for it to open people's lives. The artisans, merchants and kings of the Bronze Age as well as the international relations between them. Amarna letters, clay tablets containing the cuneiform letters of <b>ancient</b> kings and excavated at Amarna in present-day Egypt, refer to glass. Arrangement of <b>glass</b> for Pharaoh's comments: 'In the case of the king, my lord, who ordered some cups, I will send 30 (glass to the King, sir. Then who is the dog that disobeys the king's command, my lord, the sun from heaven, the son of the sun, whom the sun loves? "Src="https://safirsoft.com/picsbody/2111/12173-1.jpg"" alt="https://safirsoft.com ancient origin of glass" srcset=" https://cdn.arstechnica.net/wp-content/uploads/2021/ 11/P-amarna-letters-1280x576.jpg 2x enlargement / Amarna letters, pottery tablets containing correspondence.Cuneiform writing of ancient kings, excavated at Amarna in present-day Egypt, contains references to glass.In the case of the king, my lord , who commanded some cups, send them to the king, my lord. 30 glasses ("piece"). Besides, who is the dog that disobeys the king's command, my lord, the sun from heaven, son of the sun, who does the sun love?" And modern, a substance usually made of silicon dioxide or silica. through its irregular atoms. But in glass, the same building blocks - a silicon atom bonded to oxygen - completely wrinkle, and glazes made of the same materials and technology are still outdated, but in the late twentieth century. It was the Bronze Age - 1600 to 1200 BC - the use of glass seems to have already spread to Egypt, Greece and Mesopotamia, also known as the Near East (located in present-day Syria and Iraq). Unlike today, glass at the time was often dull and saturated in color, and the source of the silica was ground quartz pebbles, not sand. The limit that can be achieved in Bronze Age furnaces: Use the ashes of desert plants that contain high levels of salts such as sodium carbonate or bicarbonate. Plants also contain lime - calcium oxide - which makes glass more stable. ancient glassmakers also added glass-colouring materials, such as cobalt for dark blue or lead antimony for yellow. The ingredients are incorporated into the melt and contribute to the chemical evidence researchers are looking for today.

"We can begin to decompose the raw materials used to make glass, and then suggest where in the world it came from," he says.

But there is evidence. Researchers are only now, when Shortland and colleagues are studying the origin of glass About 20 years ago, glass in Egypt, the Middle East, and Greece appears to resemble chemicals that are difficult to distinguish based on the technologies available at the time.p>

An exception. Thanks to the work of Polish chemist Aleksander Kasmarkczyk in the 1980s, he discovered that elements such as aluminum and manganese Nickel and zinc along with cobalt, which give glass a sad blue color, were blue glass.By examining the relative values ​​of these states, Kaczmarczyk's team traced cobalt ore used for blue dyeing to its mineral source in specific Egyptian oases.



https://safirsoft.com The journey of the James Webb Space Telescope to its final orbit was successful

The journey of the James Webb Space Telescope to its final orbit was successful

With the precise deployment of the James Webb Space Telescope in its final orbit, the Lagrangian point halo orbit is the last step in a month-long jou...


https://safirsoft.com The iPhone 15 Pro may come with a display made by the Chinese company BOE

The iPhone 15 Pro may come with a display made by the Chinese company BOE

There have been many rumors in recent months about Apple trying to discard Samsung-made displays. In 2020, there were some reports of the use of scree...

https://safirsoft.com The 9000 Density chipset is likely to make its way into Samsung's Galaxy A series handsets

The 9000 Density chipset is likely to make its way into Samsung's Galaxy A series handsets

Samsung Galaxy S22 series phones will be introduced soon along with Exynos 2200 and Snapdragon 8 generation 1 chips. Meanwhile, it seems that Samsung ...


https://safirsoft.com 8 main reasons for the failure of entrepreneurship and investments

8 main reasons for the failure of entrepreneurship and investments

Entrepreneurship is a really complex subject. If entrepreneurs do not always do their best, they are more likely to fail. Research has shown that more...