A biologist, neurologist, and musician have found four different modes of transmission. What do the cutting edge songs of Ridiculous Chicken with Glu Towan, Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, "Show Yourself" with Frozen 2, and Kendrick Lamar's "Duckworth" have in common? According to a recent article in Frontiers in Psychology, a mockingbird follows the same musical rules used in human music when composing its songs. p>
Silly birds are famous for their ability to imitate other birds and certain sounds from their surroundings, provided that these sounds are within the ridiculous bird's range. For example, birds can mimic blue jays but not crows and tree frogs but bullfighters. More than half of the chicken songs are an imaginary tradition, and this genre contains an impressive repertoire of hundreds of phrases.
There have been many studies of funny bird songs over the decades, so scientists know that funny birds usually repeat each syllable three to five times before moving on to something new. Separate it with small breaths. (A "syllable" can be a note or a group of notes.) A 1987 study categorized thousands of lyrical phrases from just four birds and concluded that although hundreds of types of syllables exist, most are repetitive and unproduced. 25% appeared only once in the sample data.
What is less understood is how funny birds choose a syllable to sing - that is, how they compose their complex songs. This is not a random example. This new study is the first attempt to identify or quantify the specific compositional strategies that the laughing bird uses when setting their musical patterns side by side: so-called "modulation poses," similar to changes in a subject. To do this, the team reviewed the songs of five different silly birds: three were recorded in mid-spring, and two more were made available to the public from the xeno-canto database.MPI for Experimental Aesthetics
The three authors provided a unique perspective for the study. Rouske specializes in the statistical analysis of animal signals. David Ruternberg is a music philosopher at the New Jersey Institute of Technology who studies the relationship between music and nature. And Dave Gammon is a field biologist at Elon University in North Carolina who has studied funny bird songs (especially birds) for years. “When you encounter a complex song of a ridiculous bird, the musician hears one thing, the ornithologist hears another, and the signal analyzer hears another,” the authors wrote of the controversy surrounding this interdisciplinary approach. "The entire human knowledge of any natural phenomenon comes from a combination of different human forms of perception - no one denies the opinions of others. When used together, they are the strongest."
The team created a collection of silly bird songs to help visualize syllables other than the component. They listened to the recordings and made a qualitative assessment of how the birds "form" (transitions between phrases). In the end, they boiled it all down to the four main combination strategies silly birds use when transitioning from one sound to another: changing the course, changing the sound, extending the transmission, and pressing the transmission. They determined the frequency of the four patterns based on song samples from three of the five birds used in the study and found that about half of the formations were dependent on body temperature.
Yes, that's a simplification. The authors acknowledge that "virtually every transition involves a combination of more than one of these modes". The four modes is not an exact rating system, but rather an innovative tool. “We use this as a basis on which to derive testable hypotheses,” they wrote, adding that these four modes are the minimum pairs used in phonology (such as “house/mouse,” “drag/gather” and other pairs of words (different with a different sound).
Timbre describes the color or sound quality of a note or phrase. This is why a human voice, trombone, oboe, or flute, for example, can play the same note, yet all sounds very different. .with silly bird tone modes, everything about the syllable is fixed, except for the bell.This usually happens when the mockingbird changes from simulating the call of one species to another with a completely different sound quality, without changing the basic rhythm.In one case, the mockingbird started with a non-mock-up It sounded like Jay Abe's "pump handle" voice, then gradually became an imitation of Jay Abe.
The authors point to Glu Tuan's singing (specifically, a song composed by Huun-Huur-Tu) as an example of human music showing Clearly the same condition as slow formation. They wrote, “One human voice changes the quality of the lower part from the upper part, so it sounds like a More than one person sings.Ad
Mode distortion changes only when the sound or frequency of the clip changes. For example, a silly chicken might start by imitating the call of a North or North Carolina flicker, and then call out a few notes to get a non-imitative version of it. Anyone who has heard the initial notes of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 will recognize this strategy, as the first "duh-duh-duh-DUH" follows the same phrase on Lower Earth. (Legend has it that when asked through his mouth, Beethoven replied, “It is the sound of fate that knocks on the door.”)
The state of gravity (or part-time) slows down a silly chicken The lowering or lengthening of the syllable occurs, like imitation of a tanning call summer and extend it until it becomes a touching piece of a northern cardinal. According to Roeske et al. , Idina Menzel uses a similar strategy at the end of "Show Yourself." "Lamar uses a series of combination strategies that have worked wonders for silly birds for millions of years."
The stress formation mode is the opposite of the prepositional mode, in which the expression follows a similar expression that runs faster, while maintaining the same tone and sound. Kendrick Lamar uses an approach similar to "Duckworth" on the 2017 Damn, combining compaction with floor shaping. "The Pulitzer Prize for Music Composition has never been won," the authors wrote. "Lamar uses a series of combination strategies that have worked wonders for silly birds for millions of years."
From this Ruske et al. He concludes that silly birds make their songs just like human composers, and produce phrases from other birds' melodies that follow these four basic forms of modulation or a set of "rules" - just like the rules of "harmonic" human movement. .
There is a danger from anthropology here: we have a purely human bias against seeing our similarities in other species. This is why the authors attempted to control for this bias with additional analysis, and found that silly birds often chose adjacent phrases that had more similar acoustic characteristics than would be accidentally expected. So this qualitative understanding that they form between statements is not only due to human bias. However, they cannot rule out the possibility that these shift patterns are just a byproduct of how song expressions are stored in the brain.
Roeske et al. In our article, we actually tend back to stressing this over and over, lest their colleagues accuse them of "hitting the science hard by listening to music with only the functional sounds of a bird". They say, and insist, "It would be naive ... if scientists or musicologists thought that silly birds had no aesthetic sense until the relevant studies were done," especially since there is plenty of evidence. There is beauty in the singing of birds in other species, such as the black-clad hens (ground formation), desert sparrows (succulents), or canyon gorse (screwing). Ten minutes of silly bird song, recorded by biologist Dave Gamon at Elon University, uses Amadeus Pro software to visualize scrolling, so you can see the particular complexity of how the bird transitions from one sound to another. Look.
List of MPI images for experimental aesthetics p>
The Amazing Relationship Between Silly Bird Song and Kendrick Lamar
It is sometimes difficult to write objectively about the progress of SpaceX. The i...
Last Thursday, the Russian space station's new large unit, Navka, was finally conn...
We are now - often horrifyingly - watching what happens to the virus and ...