Do you want to learn how cooking changes the taste of beef? Meat scientists have the answers.
Summer is here and it's time to light the backyard fireplace. Although many of us try to eat less beef for environmental reasons, it's hard to resist eating steak once in a while — and you want to make the most of the experience. p>
Let's start with the choice of meat. Every seasoned chef knows that lower back muscles have less connective tissue along the spine and therefore produce more delicate results than solid leg muscles. They know that looking for a steak with a lot of marbles, fat builds up between the muscle fibers, which is a sign of quality meat. “In fact, in terms of flavor, the difference between one steak and another is more so in terms of fat content: the amount of stone,” wrote Solomon Matarni, a meat scientist at Utah State University, who has written on muscle biology and meat quality. In Annual Journal of Animal Life Sciences. Marbles and fatty acid subunit composition of lipid molecules. "Top fillets like ribeye have more margins and are also richer in oleic acid, which is a much tastier fatty acid," says Grat Legaco, a meat scientist at Texas Tech University in Lubbock. Fatty acids are often associated with a positive eating experience. “Conversely, cerulean contains less oleic acid and more fatty acids, which can be unpleasant and unpleasant to the taste of fish during cooking.
This difference in fatty acids is also an important consumption decision. Slice Meat: Grain-fed cows—animals that live their last months on a diet rich in corn and soybeans—have meat from animals that spend their whole lives on pastures have higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids, polyunsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated acids, which break down into smaller molecules fish flavor, consumers prefer to buy grass-fed beef anyway, avoid pigeon ethic.Or because they prefer the taste of steppe and low-fat meat.
However, the biggest influence on the final taste of a steak is the way it is cooked. In terms of flavor, cooking meat does two things.First, the heat of the oven converts the fatty acids of the meat into smaller particles that are more volatile - which means more air is transferred.These volatile substances are responsible for the steak's aroma, which forms with Regulate its flavour. Molecules called aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols are among the compounds that are considered carnivorous in terms of specific analysis.
The second way to add flavor in cooking is to brown them, a process chemists call the Maillard reaction. It is a very complex process in which amino acids and traces of sugars in meat interact at high temperatures, resulting in a series of chemical changes that produce many volatile end products. The most important of these are molecules called pyrazine and blasts, which contribute to the delicious, roasted flavors that steak lovers crave. The longer and hotter you cook, the deeper the Maillard reaction and the greater the craving for these final products—until the meat begins to wilt and produce unpleasant, burnt flavours.
The challenge for the grill maker is to achieve the perfect level of Maillard products while the meat reaches the desired degree of sweetness. There are three variables to play with: temperature, time, and stick thickness. Thin steaks cook faster, so they need a hot oven to make enough coffee in a short time, says Chris Court, a meat scientist at Texas A&M University. Kurt and his colleagues studied the process in the lab, plotted the sticks to get exact specifications, and presented the results on a gas chromatograph, which measures the amount of each volatile chemical produced. As expected, Curt found that thin, half-inch steaks cooked at relatively low temperatures had a meaty flavor more characteristic of fatty acid dissociation, while higher temperatures produced many roasted pyrazine products as a result of the Maillard reaction. So, if the steak is thin, take this out of the oven - and leave the lid open to cook the meat a little slower. This gives you time to create a complex taste and delicious meat.
And to get the best looking on both sides, turn the meat a third of the waiting time, not halfway—because cooking the first side will shrink the contracted muscle fibers in the water. the side. After stirring, Team Cool cools the water on the other side, so it takes longer to turn brown. When the scientists tested 1.5-inch-thick steaks, the opposite happened: the outside burned annoyingly before mid-cooking. For these steaks, the average oven temperature creates the best volatile texture. And sure enough, when Kerth's team tested their steaks on real people, they found that restaurants gave less of the thicker steaks that were grilled quickly and easily. Dining rooms measure temperature and cooking time for others similarly, but thicker steaks cooked over medium heat are obtained through the nose.
This may sound odd, given that steaks often pride themselves on their thick plates and the intense heat of their ovens—exactly the combination that the plot study was perfect for. This is because the steaks use a two-step cooking process: they first search for the meat on the hot stove and then finish cooking in a medium-sized oven. "That way, they find the degree of accuracy that matches the searches they want," Kurt says. Home chefs can do the same by placing ground beef in the oven at 350 degrees Fahrenheit until it reaches the desired tenderness.
The best degree of tenderness, of course, is largely a matter of personal preference - but science has something to say here too. "Meat doesn't receive enough heat to break down its fatty acids to produce meat flavors," he says. And if you exceed the quantity, you will lose some of the "bloody" flavors cooked with a little meat. "A lot of people, including me, like a bloody note with brown pyrazines and Maillard clusters," says Kurt. "It has more flavor." For these reasons, he advises, "I never go below average rarely or definitely above average. Then you start to lose flavor." p>
Kerth Another tip for home cooks: When the meat is on the grill watch the meat closely! "When you're at that temperature, a lot happens in a short amount of time," he says. "A lot of chemical reactions start very quickly." This is the scientific basis for any experienced oven cooker, learned from bitter experience (literally): it's easy to burn meat if you don't pay attention.
Happy science-conscious barbecue! Bob Holmes is an Edmonton-based science writer and author of Flavor: The Science of Our Neglected Sense. Having reported this story, he grills steaks differently.
This article was originally published in Danstani, a journalistic endeavor independent of Annual Reviews. Subscribe to our newsletter.
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