https://safirsoft.com Scientists expand and facilitate symbolic 'hockey stick' for climate

24,000 years of climate history, with the current unprecedented warming. The data shows constant temperatures over the past millennium, like a hockey stick, which has ended in "blades" since the Industrial Revolution with a rapid rise in temperatures. The idea first appeared in an article by Michael Mann and Raymond Bradley of the University of Massachusetts and Malcolm Hughes of the University of Arizona. The work became famous after its appearance in the United Nations Climate Report and has since become the focus of climate denial, hacking, defamation and disinformation, all of which have appeared in a recent BBC television drama called "The Trick".

Today, in an article published in the journal Nature, scientists explain that the "hockey stick" dates back 9,500 years, while the "blade" is longer - 1.5 degrees Celsius warmer than the past decade. Over the past 11,700 years, Dr. Matt Othman of the University of Arizona, lead author of the research, said, "Human-caused changes in global temperatures over the past century may have been faster than any change over the past 24,000 years." The warming that ended the last ice age. "Src="https://safirsoft.com/picsbody/2111/11758-1.jpg"alt="https://safirsoft.com Scientists have extended and smoothed out the iconic climate 'hockey stick' "> Animation showing warming that ended the last Ice Age. Matthew Osman

Measures the temperature of times before the thermometer

thermometers, scientists must use indirect proxies for the new study, scientists examine more than 500 proxy records from oceans around the world Data show fossilized remains of plankton and microbes in sediments dating back to radiocarbon dating. The researchers then used statistical methods to calculate sea surface temperature based on the chemical properties of the wreck.” We spent seven years developing models for different types of sea temperature proxies, using biological and geochemical knowledge and using the best methods we used statistics. The researchers combined alternative temperatures with climate model simulations to look at the incomplete geographic distribution of the data and based their findings on independent records such as ice drilled from polar regions and stalagmites. in caves.

Solving the mystery

The researchers' work allows them to make maps and graphs of global temperatures when Earth emerged from the last Ice Age, and time slices of 200 years. an offer. Its history dates back to 24,000 years ago.

The authors found that the Ice Age was 7°C cooler than in pre-industrial periods, and about 1°C cooler than previously thought. Global warming began 16,900 years ago, and until 11,000 years ago, the Earth had a relatively warm "interglacial" climate. These results correct the details but are in agreement with the outline disclosed in previous work. "Holocene Cooling Shows (in red) New work by Othman and colleagues corrects the geographical roughness and is the result of a slight heating process (in blue)." src="https://safirsoft.com/picsbody/2111/11758-2.jpg" alt="https://safirsoft.com Scientists expand and facilitate token climate 'hockey stick'"> Zoom in/solve Holocene climate puzzle: proxies are not evenly distributed throughout The planet, so indicates a simple average of the Holocene cooling (red). Osman and colleagues' new work corrects for the geographic roughness, which is the result of a slight (blue) heating process. Edited by Osman et. The. But unlike previous studies, the new work shows that before the current warming, there was a slow and long-lasting warming of 0.5°C that began 9,500 years ago. It also shows that the climate of the "handle" in the "hockey stick" is straightforward, whereas in previous studies, the "handle" was deformed with initial warming and subsequent cooling in the pre-industrial era.

New results. Solve the differences between climate models (which simulate warming) and alternative studies (which show cooling). This problem became known as the "Holocene temperature puzzle". "The two reconstructions show no evidence of an early Holocene warm period," said Samantha Buffa of San Diego State University, who announced the temperature reconstruction in the same period earlier this year. He noted that his paper used an entirely different approach, so the fact that his research reached a similar result to Tierney's team "leaves little room for doubt that the Holocene was a prolonged period of warming." /r>

Scientists expand and facilitate symbolic 'hockey stick' for climate
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