Posted in Bones: Medieval Skeletons Tell the Story of Social Inequality in Cambridge
The working class was more vulnerable to harm than monks or hospital inmates at the asylum.

A working class woman suffering from domestic violence. A monk may be the victim of a collision with a horse or cart. These are just two examples of the remains of 314 people excavated from three very different medieval burials in Cambridge, England. According to an article published last January in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, the evidence for the skeletal traumas of many of these remains reveals what life was like in medieval Cantabria in terms of occupation, living conditions, and social status. >

There is rarely time to write about any interesting science fiction that comes to us. So this year, we're once again launching a series of twelve-day Christmas specials, highlighting a failed sci-fi story of 2020 every day from December 25 to January 5. Our latest publication in the 2021 series: Skeletal remains excavated from medieval sites in Cambridge show occupational and social differences in population.

This research comes from the Post-Plague Project in the Department of Archeology at the University of Cambridge, which examines how historical conditions affect health and how health, in turn, deals with history. The project focuses in particular on the Black Death (1350-1347 AD) in late medieval England, where between a third and a half of Europe's population died.

“In different urban settings such as Cambridge, we can assess the risks of daily life to which different areas of society were exposed in the Middle Ages,” says Jana Dittmar, lead author and paleontologist at Cambridge. They, or more protected hospital inmates, were more likely to be infected. The river port and the countryside are a suburban agricultural area. But it presents a diverse social landscape, in which the majority of the population works: agricultural laborers (such as plowers and shepherds), construction workers (such as carpenters, tilers, mason, and straws) and artisans (such as shoemakers and tailors). But the women found work brewing beer, washing clothes, sewing, working on farms, and entering domestic services. The city also had several ecclesiastical institutes, including the University of Cambridge itself, founded between 1208 and 1210. The monks could have been scholars or performed various pastoral duties with little manual labour. Like every city, Cambridge had its share of poor people, as well as a small number of wealthy families, with great wealth and servants. Burial sites represent a wide range of Cambridge communities. The first part of All Saints' Church is located next to the castle, and was first excavated in the early 1970s. This neighborhood, probably founded between 940 and 1100 AD, was where most of the common people were buried. Finally, in 1986 after the Black Death devastated the residents of Cambridge, it merged with a neighboring neighbourhood, Milad was founded. This church charity cared for the poor and disabled until it was dissolved to establish St John's College. Those buried here likely lived in poverty, receiving food, shelter, and clothing from the hospital, and finally, there is the Augustinian Abbey of Cambridge, founded around AD 1280, with burials being offered to monks. And the people of the wealthy city.

Dietmar et al. They found that, overall, male skeletons showed more signs of fracture than female skeletons (40% vs 26%). About 44 percent of working-class skeletons were broken, compared to 32 percent of residential skeletons and 27 percent of hospital skeletons—perhaps because working-class occupants of skeletons often include people with chronic or debilitating illnesses. Participation in activities that involve the same amount of risk. Older adults are more likely to fracture.

Rib fractures were the most common injuries. “These are the people who spent many hours doing heavy manual work,” Dittmar says. "In the city, people were employed in trades and crafts such as masonry and blacksmithing, or as public sector workers. Outside the city, many spent mornings and evenings breaking bones on farms or tending livestock.


The skeletal remains are A testament to the life they lived through hard work.One of the skeletons had a broken collarbone, which may have been preserved by falling on the shoulder and attempting to break the fall with an outstretched hand.Another skeleton of an elderly man showed evidence of multiple broken ribs in addition to Broken collarbone - possibly as a result of severe blows from falling from a height or being crushed or entrapped.

"Buried in All Saints, he says, were some of the poorest in the city and evidently more prone to accidental injuries." . Perhaps the men worked on farms with heavy plows drawn by horses or cows, or stone blocks and wooden beams in the city. Many of the women in All Saints probably did hard physical work such as tending livestock and helping to harvest crops. Home Business.

Domestic violence revealed: Numerous fractures healed before his death, including rib fractures, jaw and leg fractures and vertebral fractures. "For example, it is unusual for all of these injuries to occur as a result of a fall," says Dietmar. Hence the suggestion of domestic violence.

The team found fractures in both halves of the femur (bones) from a ferry's skeleton, a common injury today for those who are hit by cars. "Anything that breaks both bones in this way," Dietmar said. It must have been painful, and it might have been death.” “Our best guess is a car accident. Perhaps a horse got scared and hit the cart." Another monk showed signs of defensive wounds in one arm and severe blows to the skull, which seem to be great fodder for a medieval murder puzzle.

Somewhat surprisingly, Dietmar et al. They found no evidence of blunt trauma, for example, the type entered by a weapon.The authors wrote: "It was said that murder was so common that in London and Oxford one person was more likely to die than in an accident," the authors wrote. Blade weapons such as daggers and knives were not commonly used to commit violent acts in Cambridge," even though 73% of killings during this period were carried out with winning or piercing weapons.

DOI: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2021. 10.1002/ajpa.24225 (about DOIs). The journey of the James Webb Space Telescope to its final orbit was successful

The journey of the James Webb Space Telescope to its final orbit was successful

With the precise deployment of the James Webb Space Telescope in its final orbit, the Lagrangian point halo orbit is the last step in a month-long jou... The iPhone 15 Pro may come with a display made by the Chinese company BOE

The iPhone 15 Pro may come with a display made by the Chinese company BOE

There have been many rumors in recent months about Apple trying to discard Samsung-made displays. In 2020, there were some reports of the use of scree... The 9000 Density chipset is likely to make its way into Samsung's Galaxy A series handsets

The 9000 Density chipset is likely to make its way into Samsung's Galaxy A series handsets

Samsung Galaxy S22 series phones will be introduced soon along with Exynos 2200 and Snapdragon 8 generation 1 chips. Meanwhile, it seems that Samsung ... 8 main reasons for the failure of entrepreneurship and investments

8 main reasons for the failure of entrepreneurship and investments

Entrepreneurship is a really complex subject. If entrepreneurs do not always do their best, they are more likely to fail. Research has shown that more...