The structural fabric reflects more light, and still radiates in the infrared. Rising temperatures around the world threaten to create a dangerous cycle as more people ventilate, increasing energy demand and emitting more carbon. , making the temperature even higher. Renewable energy is one option to break this cycle, but people are also studying materials that activate what's called passive cooling. Without using energy, these materials transfer heat from whatever is covered and transfer it to space
Made for Cold
When something is exposed to sunlight, it absorbs some of the photons that turn into heat. This heat can then be emitted at infrared wavelengths. The problem is, it's not really that much cool. Many gases in the atmosphere instantly absorb infrared light and trap energy in the form of heat near the body. If the body is subjective, there is additional heat generated by their metabolism which also emits infrared radiation.
The secret of passive cooling lies in the presence of the so-called atmospheric window of this region of the infrared spectrum, which no gases in the atmosphere can absorb. Photons in this region of the spectrum are more likely to travel into space, causing heat to escape permanently. Photons from heating the object it covers. At the same time, the material absorbs some of the heat by coming into contact with whatever it is covering - directly or through the interfering air. But these materials are designed to radiate heat in the mid-infrared, allowing photons to escape through the atmospheric window.
No material can do all this work on its own. But with our increasing ability to make multiple materials on a small scale, we can find a range of materials that do just that. The result is a coating that cools things down without requiring more energy than is needed to build and install them.
Get dressed now h2>
Clothes obviously add some complications to this. It should be flexible and washable at first. If the goal is to keep a person cool, they have to deal with the body's internal cooling system: sweat. To reflect the clothing, the researchers used titanium dioxide powder, which is highly reflective and often used to turn things like white. Obviously, powder alone doesn't make for a good look. But the researchers took titanium dioxide nanoparticles and incorporated them into polymer fibers, choosing the size of the particles based on computer modeling to maximize reflectivity. This is exactly what it takes to send photons into space through an atmospheric window. The researchers also proudly state that the polymer is biodegradable, although I'd like to see long-term data on how it works after several years of cleaning against human skin bacterial populations.
This material is woven in such a way that there are pores large enough for air exchange. Then it is covered with a thin layer of another polymer, polytetrafluoroethylene. which has two purposes. This polymer reflects ultraviolet light and controls certain wavelengths that titanium dioxide does not. It is also hydrophobic, which means that it repels water. Combine this with a carefully chosen pore size and it also makes you breathe while keeping everything waterproof.Advertising
This last feature fixes the race issue. When sweat evaporates from the skin, it evaporates and causes the substance to pass through the pores. This works even when the fabric rejects liquid water due to its hydrophobic nature.
Do All Show
The researchers did their best to create their own amazing tapestry through a comprehensive experiment and demonstration. They show that the breathable/waterproof formula works by using the fabric to seal the water container and then pumping air through it. (Strange, the photo in this article shows that they put the fish in the water... I'm not quite sure.) This fabric reflects more than 90% of sunlight.
They also made a large roll of fabric and showed that you can do things you would expect with clothes, including embroidering them with patterns and sending them through the washer.
Crucially, the researchers showed that the fabric conducts heat as expected. They put different fabrics on a copper plate and exposed them to direct sunlight. To reflect the normal use of the fabric, they inject the amount of heat normally dispersed by the human body (which is somewhat annoying, they called it a "skin simulator"). The board was in the end 5 degrees cooler than cotton and about 7 degrees colder than spandex.
As a final experiment, the researchers made a half-covered jacket with a piece of cloth, glued it to one of her students, and set the student in the sun. By recording someone's temperature with an infrared camera, they found that the half covered in the skeletal material was about 3 degrees Celsius cooler than it was.
This substance has clear limitations, especially since its staining immediately destroys many of its functions. But as someone who suffers from the scorching summer heat, I'd be happy to accept the "you can have any color you want it white" case for my shirt if it made me a few degrees cooler. So hopefully there won't be too many trade barriers in this case.
Science, 2021. DOI: 10.1126/science.abi5484 (about DOI).
New fabric passively cools everything it covers - including you
We are now - often horrifyingly - watching what happens to the virus and ...
Welcome to Version 4.09 Rocket Report! I was definitely l...
Flight controllers at NASA and Roscosmos succeeded in pr...
A team of engineers at the University of Maryland has developed a soft...