Here is more evidence that Neanderthals were just as creative and educated as the rest of us.
During the Middle Ages, people entered a cave called Einhornhohle to collect unicorns. It's tempting to wonder if these medieval predators were disappointed to learn that the bones they pulled out of the cave belonged to humpback buffalo, deer, cave lion, bear and other animals that died 50,000 years ago. Or will she be fascinated? Archaeologists began excavating the cave in 2017, and while cleaning and arranging their non-unicorn bones, they discovered the handiwork of a long-dead Neanderthal craftsman. p>
About 51,000 years ago, someone carved a geometric pattern on the second phalanx, or giant deer bone. The carver was almost certainly Neanderthal, based on the age of the radiocarbon bone, since none other than Neanderthals lived in Europe until about 45,000 years ago, according to archaeologist Dirk Leder of the Lower Saxony Cultural Heritage Service and colleagues. Frontiers of the world Neanderthals are known to inhabit, the Inhornhoehle is located in the Harz Mountains in northern Germany.
Three parallel lines are cut diagonally on the surface of the bone. Another set of parallel lines running through the first three at more or less angles. The torso machine was a few degrees away, but that's pretty respectable for someone who has eyes-gauging and operates with a flint blade. At the base of the bone (the end is closer to the tibia), the graft added four short lines, roughly parallel but not quite like the rest of the rows. Leader and others. Describe the resulting pattern as "compensation ciphers". Good effort and good supply for small and sharp flint blades. Lieder and his colleagues can reassure this because they tried it themselves, using handcrafted cow bats and Baltic flint blades accessed by a Neanderthal bone cutter in northern Germany. They examined the lathes under a microscope and looked for small tool marks that could show how the blade of the bursa moved across the surface of the bone to create each line. Then they tried to repeat what they saw.Advertising
It took several steps to scrape each line in a relatively simple pattern - and it took about 10 minutes. The entire pattern represents about 1.5 hours of work, excluding preparation time. If you want to make your own Neanderthal bone art, here are some step-by-step instructions:
Boil the bone first. Leader and colleagues found that the boiled bone was soft enough, without cracks, and clean enough to stick tightly. Now, hold the edge of the blade perpendicular and cut the bone with the motion of the saw, which should reach the beginning of the line to the surface. Next, hold the blade horizontally against the bone and scrape the surface, going toward the incision you made. This results in a long, straight cut with a sloping side and a broad, shallow side. Repeat these steps in sequence until the depth of the engraving is about 2 mm.
Then do the same thing 9 more times.
Be prepared to change the code every five minutes or so. "Two blades were used to make each cut because their edges became dull for only a few minutes," Lieder and colleagues wrote. You'll need at least 20 flint blades for this project, which means you'll have to make your own or convince someone skilled enough to make art supplies for you.
After all, Neanderthals, who converted this pattern into deer bones 51,000 years ago, weren't just building a sluggish back. This was a legal project. Imagination was needed to design this design and to discover how many single lines would be added to a more intricate pattern. Resources and planning were needed to collect the tools, and creating the model took time and effort.
What was the use?
Of course, we have no way of knowing the intercept pattern of anyone who looped it, if any. We can only guess whether these lines are a counter, a note, or a symbol that has a spiritual or cultural meaning. Or maybe someone enjoyed sculpting, loved diagonal lines and wanted to spend time creating something beautiful. After all, this is the very human impulse. Bone ads may provide some clues, but they are ambiguous. A deer battalion is very small and may not be a useful tool, but any giant deer bones can be considered valuable or important. The giant deer, now extinct, is about 2 meters (6 feet) tall at the shoulders and weighs between 450 and 700 kilograms (1 to 1.5 tons). Males boast stubble antlers that are approximately 3.5 meters (11 ft) wide. Giant deer wrote 55,000 to 35,000 years ago in the Northern Alps. Sometimes the leader and his colleagues write.
Sometimes, a microscopic examination like this may show faint traces of rubbing or polishing, which someone wears as a necklace or on clothing. In this case, Leder et al.. Suppose it is difficult to distinguish The number of small polish marks and chips from wear, shaving damage, or damage buried in a cave for thousands of years. Leder et al suggested a possibility. /p>
" On the other hand, the base of the phalanx is suitable as a platform on which the item stands, although Trees facing up. (Please refer to the subtle beauty of 'Base of Phalanges' noting that your loyal correspondent cannot be blamed or relied upon.) It clearly tells us that Neanderthals were creative, abstract thinkers who could indeed make art.
Evidence that Neanderthals could think symbolically, make art and plan a project like this has been accumulating over the past few years.Neanderthals in Spain painted cave walls about 64,000 years ago and made oyster jewelry made with ocher pigments.About 50,000 years ago, about Neanderthals plant fibers into filaments in France.And in central Italy, between 55,000 and 40,000 years ago, Neanderthals used qaran birch to hold their explosive stone tools in place, which required a lot of planning and sophistication.Archaeologists have found many bones and stones from Middle Paleolithic - when Neanderthals dominated most of Europe - carved with geometric patterns such as cross and zigzag portals, parallel lines, and circles.The common denominator in many of these findings is that they predated our species to what it once was in The world of Neanderthals - in this case, at least 5,000 years ago. "The cultural influence of Homo sapiens as the only explanatory agent of abstract cultural expressions in Neanderthals" wrote Leder et al. Nature of Ecology and Evolution, 2021 DOI: 10.1038/s41559-021-01487-z (about DOIs). p>
Neanderthals were carved into a bone 51,000 years ago
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