https://safirsoft.com mRNA vaccine technology transferred to influenza: Moderna says testing has begun

Moderna plans to conduct seasonal imaging for influenza, COVID-19, RSV and HMPV respiratory viruses. On Wednesday, Moderna Corporation announced the first doses of its mRNA-based influenza vaccine to participants in an early-stage clinical trial.

Moderna eventually plans to test the vaccine on 180 people in a semi-randomised, stratified, and blind control phase. This safety test will look at different doses and immune responses.

READ MORE It looks like raw flu season is coming. The vaccine, called mRNA-1010, is designed to target four strains of influenza virus that circulate seasonally each year, just like the quadruple influenza vaccines on the market. The World Health Organization targets the four viral strains each year for disease prevention - the seasonal influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 strains, as well as the Y Yamagata and Victoria influenza strains. If mRNA-1010 proves effective in next-stage trials against annual pests, Moderna eventually plans to bundle it with three other mRNA-based vaccines to produce an annual one-step dose. In addition to influenza, this image shows a predictable mixture of two other common respiratory viruses circulating along the course of influenza - respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metabinovirus (hMPV) - as well as coronavirus (COVID-19). . -2, which some experts speculate is seasonal. There is currently no licensed vaccine against RSV or hMPV. It is not clear whether SARS-CoV-2 would be necessary seasonal or annual booster vaccines. "We believe the benefits of the mRNA vaccine include the ability to combine different antigens to protect against multiple complications." "Viruses and the ability to respond quickly to their complications," Moderna CEO Stephen Bunkel said in a statement. The development of respiratory viruses, such as influenza, SARS-CoV-2, and RSV. "Our vision is to develop a hybrid mRNA vaccine so that individuals can take a hit every fall to protect against the toughest respiratory viruses." p>

Vaccine Design

While the target company, with its massive seasonal vaccine, the influenza component alone, could greatly improve existing images, much to the chagrin of humanity, the annual quadrivalent and trivalent influenza vaccines It has little effect, generally only in the 40 to 60 percent range, and in some years the effect of vaccines is even lower. And modern advertising expects to be able to do this. By increasing the success of its mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine — which has 94 percent efficacy in clinical trials — Moderna has launched the most advanced, targeted mRNA vaccine platform to fight the flu. The company is currently developing three mRNA-based vaccine candidates. After mRNA-1010, there are mRNA-1020 and mRNA-1030.

In general, mRNA vaccines work by delivering a portion of the virus' genetic code into human cells, which is in the form of messenger RNA (mRNA). This type of RNA generally acts as a mediator, transmitting instructions encoded by DNA to the cell's molecular machinery, which converts the code into a protein. The mRNA fragments in vaccines identify viral proteins that the immune system can use to target a target. When the cell's machinery turns a vaccine's mRNA code into a viral protein, the immune system uses that protein to train antibodies to target the virus and defend the cell. To prevent COVID-19, mRNA vaccines encode a portion of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Copies of this protein are removed from the virus spheroid and help the virus to penetrate human cells. Likewise, they are an easy and effective target for antibodies and other immune responses. To prevent influenza, mRNA vaccines can target the key proteins similarly released from the influenza virus, hemagglutinin (HA or H). and neuraminidase (NA or N). Like spikes, these proteins are essential to the influenza virus's ability to attack human cells. However, HA and NA come in different forms, which are referred to as H and N in influenza viruses (such as H1N1 and H3N2). Advantages of mRNA

mRNA based on a vaccine strategy provides a highly accurate method of targeting influenza viruses HA and NA compared to current influenza vaccines, which often provide viruses. Completely, weak or inactive depends on the immune system. The mRNA-based design also makes it easier to modify vaccines. For example, if the influenza virus appears in one season with a slightly different version of HA - as it often does - it is likely that only one vaccine coding will be updated to modify the picture for that year. This is a change that can be made quickly. When strains of SARS-CoV-2 raised concerns earlier this year, the CEO of BioNTech — which developed mRNA-based COVID-19 with Pfizer — said he could vaccinate mRNA in just six days if needed a week.

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Perhaps the biggest advantage of the mRNA strategy over the current flu vaccine is that it does not infect eggs. Current influenza vaccines are often produced using fertilized eggs. Vaccines inject the virus into the eggs and allow the virus to form clone hordes. Vaccine manufacturers then collect, process, weaken or kill the viruses and use them for vaccination. It's cheap, simple, and a method that's been in use for decades.

But it is also time consuming, requires a lot of eggs and may not produce high-performance vaccines. Weakened or inactivated virus vaccines lack the precision of other vaccine strategies, such as recombinant mRNA or proteins. With a complete virus, the immune system can attack many different features of the virus, some of which may not be very useful in neutralizing the attacker. Influenza mortality

In addition, humans are different from chickens. And sometimes during the production process, influenza viruses can adapt to the conditions of their poultry. This appears to be the case in the 2017-2018 influenza season, when the circulating H3N2 influenza virus appears to cause mutations in HA during egg-based vaccine production. Mutations may make the virus better at infecting eggs, but in vaccines, mutations appear to cause the body to produce antibodies that are less successful at defeating H3N2 in humans.

During influenza season, the overall effect of influenza vaccine was estimated to be only 38%. The efficacy against influenza A viruses, containing H3N2, was only 30%. The 2017-2018 flu season was at its worst this decade, with an estimated 810,000 hospitalizations and 61,000 deaths.

However, health experts urge everyone to get a flu shot every year. . Although the flu is sometimes benign, it is a devastating contagious disease. Even a low-dose vaccine can help. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that influenza has affected between 9 million and 45 million people each year since 2010. In each of those years, it has sent 140,000 to 810,000 people to the hospital and killed between 12,000 and 61,000 people . In addition to the human costs, the economic burden of all this is estimated at $11 billion per year.

mRNA vaccine technology transferred to influenza: Moderna says testing has begun
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