Microbiologists have discovered a record of drugs missing in the canal

An antiparasitic drug called chloroquine continues to disappear from the quarantine habitat.

Chicago Aquarium Founded in 1930, Chicago isn't just a popular tourist attraction. Its employees also contribute to conservation efforts worldwide and conduct basic research on animal health and behavior, nutrition, genetics, aquatic filtration, and molecular and microbial ecology. Over the past four years, these employees have been amazed at the mysterious disappearance of an antiparasitic drug commonly added to water in quarantine habitats in aquariums. Now, with the help of microbiologists at Northwestern University, they've discovered the condition. According to a recent article in Scien

The Aquarium Research and Conservation Center includes the Department of Animal Welfare and Science, with an advanced animal hospital to monitor the health of all animals on display and treat them as needed. (If you want to learn how to perform an electric eel MRI, the center's team has you covered.)

Since 2015, the center has been working on a special research project to study the aquarium microbiome. Among other topics, the project includes the study of microbial communities in aquarium biofilters. Such aquatic systems, depending on the ammonia waste in fish, can be rapidly toxic, and some microbial communities can help control these levels. But other microbes are less profitable, as the case of missing chloroquine shows.

Once an aquarium acquires new animals, these organisms are first isolated to prevent the entry of any foreign pathogens. Be. A precisely controlled aquarium environment Part of this process involves the use of chloroquine phosphate, usually by adding it to habitat water. Staff regularly monitor chloroquine concentrations, and thus find that these concentrations are usually much lower than expected - often too low to act as an effective antiparasitic. Microbial investigators from Northwestern University sampled the water of quarantine habitats as well as the walls and tubes of the habitat. They brought the samples to their lab for extensive analysis. In all, they counted about 754 different species of microbes that call home home, and the team soon guessed the chloroquine thief was among them.

“It deals with how microorganisms affect animals, etc. ecosystem health in managed and natural environments.” src="" alt="https://safirsoft .com Microbiologists discover record of missing drugs in channel "srcset=" 2x"> Zoom / Shedd Molecular and Microbial Ecology Group studies How microorganisms affect animal health and ecosystems in managed and natural environments. Shedd Aquarium

"There are obviously germs in the water," says Hartmann, "but there are also germs that stick to the edges of surfaces." If you have an aquarium at home, you've probably noticed sloppy growths on both sides of you. People sometimes add snails or algae-eating fish to clean up the sides. Therefore, we wanted to study everything that was in the water and everything that was stuck. "On both sides of the roof."

Next, the investigators had to identify the suspects. At first, they cultured each germ and fed each germ only chloroquine as food. But the vital evidence came from their chemical analysis of the remaining chloroquine: it doesn't contain all the nitrogen it does. “Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and phosphorous are basic 'something needs to live.' needs. In this case, microbes seem to be using the drug as the nitrogen source.” It's the equivalent of eating. We just take the pickles out of the cheeseburger and leave the rest behind."

Finally, Hartmann et al. They've been able to identify 21 potential factors that originated in habitat tubes, some of which appear to have not been studied before. No one is yet known All the nitrogen collects in chloroquine, but at least the aquarium now knows that the problem is in the pipes. Unfortunately, regular washing of these pipes may not solve the problem, as germs stick to the sides. According to Hartmann, the habitat pipes should be cleaned or possibly replaced entirely. It can help Switching between freshwater and seawater is also controlling microbial assemblies in the future.

“Overall, our results expand and demonstrate a wealth of knowledge about aquarium microbiomes and the degradation of veterinary drugs.” Microbiology and microbial chemistry can be influential The authors conclude that brine circulation chambers have been incorporated into future management.“In addition, these findings may add to human nitrogen-containing chemicals.”

DOI: Science of the Total Environment, 2021. 10.1016 / j.scitotenv. 20532 (about DOI).

Microbiologists have discovered a record of drugs missing in the canal
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