Effects and radiation ensure that the chemicals of interest will not last on Earth. One of the best candidates for hosting life in other parts of the world is Jupiter's moon Jupiter, a vast universe with a vast ocean beneath the ice. Solar System. NASA plans to send a spacecraft to its surface to see if the ice contains chemicals that indicate life, although the project is still being evaluated. p>
The gravitational strains that Europa imposes on Jupiter and its other large moons are the energy source for a portion of the lunar fluid. But the liquid part of Europa - thought to be around the width of the moon - lies tens of kilometers beneath the moon's icy surface. Therefore, discovering evidence of life is not something that can be controlled from the circuit. "The researchers hope that this evidence will eventually reach a point where we can study it," he said. There are indications that Europa's surface is being deformed in a similar way to plate tectonics, and we also point out that European ice is being penetrated by geysers. These processes can transport material from the depths of the Moon to its surface, or carry living organisms or related chemicals. Advertising is a problem (or at least a problem) for any frigate once the materials arrive. The region near Jupiter is heavily irradiated by the giant planet's magnetic fields. In addition to the immediate elimination of barley-deficient organisms at the surface, radiation over time causes chemical changes in the chemicals. Instead of something that may be clearly related to life, we will find a group of organic chemicals that are difficult to explain.
The obvious solution is to search below the surface, because if the ice protected the material, it was deep enough. However, such protection is not guaranteed, since the European surface is also not affected by influences that, in the absence of an atmosphere, would not cause any problems in direct contact with the Earth's surface.
Therefore, to find a good opportunity for chemicals that really reflect the moon's aquatic environment, we need to drill or drill below the surface radiation depth and the depth at which they are likely to be shattered by impacts.
Depth is sufficient
The exact question the new article addresses is how much depth we need to exercise. If we only needed to get below the point where the radiation reaches, it would be only a few centimeters away. Thus, four researchers - all from US-based institutions - wondered if this method breaks down superficial effects enough to lead us to a deeper exploration. To do this, we need some properties of the affected surface (ice, in this case), the number of impacts and the size of those impacts. Given this, you can predict the cumulative effect over time, as well as predict how balanced the system will be, as the slots disappear as they fill with debris at the same frequency. in production.Advertising
It is a complex fact that larger impacts eject small debris, which also has an effect on its return to the moon's surface. But this can also be taken into account.
Finally, you need to estimate the frequency of the effects and the size of the two effects. Two have been commonly used in the literature: one based on aperture calculation using Galileo orbital data, and one based on the calculation of impact flashes. The researchers chose to use both models and built separate models for each. In the end, they got exactly the same results.
The bottom line is that horticulture in Europe has turned the surface to an average depth of about 30 cm. Anything closer to the surface is exposed to enough radiation at one time or another to chemically transform the materials in it.
But Europe has been around for over 4 years. It is a billion years old, and there are many signs that different parts of the surface are newer and other areas are older. Most likely, the total level was really available throughout the period. More practically, if we assume that we can land the probe in one of the newer regions, the probability of finding pristine material changes is higher. For a place that existed on Earth 10 million years ago, researchers estimate that a depth of one meter ensures that the materials we find are not exposed to radiation.
This means that to increase the chances of a mission being successful, we should focus on relatively small areas. The researchers also noted that radiation bombardment does not attack Europe equally, so we can target areas with less radiation. But, even with these benefits, we must have the technology with us to dig deeper than we have done in any body other than Earth.
Nature Astronomy, 2021. DOI: 10.1038/s41550-021-01393-1 (about DOI).
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