"There is no logical doubt here. This new analysis must stop. The map of Wineland is almost as interesting as opening a document because, in addition to Africa, Asia and Europe, the map shows part of the coast of North America. It is referred to as the 'Finlandia insula' in southwest Greenland , this indicates that the Norse were the first Europeans to discover the Americas, just before Christopher Columbus' first voyage.
If it proves to be of great historical interest. But the evidence that the map is fake, especially in the past few years, is steadily accumulating. The latest scientific analysis has certainly put an end to the absolute controversy: the inks used to draw the map are of modern origin. "The map of Wineland is fake," says Raymond Clemens. Supervisor of Early Books and Manuscripts at Beinecke. "There is no reasonable doubt here. This new analysis should stop the case." The map was first revealed in 1957, when a London bookseller named Irving Davis first presented a map of Wineland—and then attached it to a medieval text, Hystoria Tartarorum—to the British Museum. which works on behalf of another European seller, Enzo Ferragoli de Re. (Farjoli was later convicted of manuscript theft in the 1950s.) But the museum's custodian of manuscripts thought the style of handwriting represented items not popular until the 19th century and suspected forgery had transmitted this display.
American seller Laurence C. Witten III eventually bought the item for $3,500 and offered to sell it to Yale (his mother) for $300,000. The price was a little high for the university, but another alumnus agreed to buy the map and donate it to Yale, on the condition that it was validated. The wormhole has been preserved for several years because few scientists studied the work in detail while writing a book about their findings. There was good reason to be skeptical: while the map and the date did contain wormholes, these wormholes did not match. Witten was reluctant to reveal the origin of the plan, possibly due to tax concerns. But the following year, Davis sold another medieval day called Yale, a historical speculum, which contained wormholes. By the map of Vinland, it is clear that the three books were attached to one volume at a time. Since both Hystoria and Speculum are original, the Vinland map also looked original. The discovery of the Norse Norse site in 1960 at L'Anse aux Meadows at the northern tip of the island of Newfoundland - the only confirmed Norse city in or near North America outside of Greenland - was further encouraged.Zoom in / The inscription on the back of the map (above) has been rewritten in an apparent attempt to deceive. The image below shows the presence of titanium in the ink, which strongly suggests a modern origin. Yale University
Yale University publicly declared ownership of the Wineland map before Columbus Day in 1965. Experts almost questioned its accuracy, until a conference at the Smithsonian Institution the following year. Among other criticisms, since 1957 no scientist has been allowed to study the map. Radiocarbon dating in 1995 showed that at least genuine leather formed, possibly between 1423 and 1445. But in addition to handwriting concerns, the British Museum of Experts noted features of the inks used to create the Wineland map. The specialists found no trace of scalpel ink in the two accompanying books and were unable to determine the instructions.
This was a scientific mission, and science was responsible for 1972. Then forensic expert Walter Macron conducted a number of chemical analyzes on the inks. He found that the yellow lines on the map—which almost disappear below the black lines—contain titanium dioxide (anatase) in a way that wasn't produced until the 1920s. There was a small amount of iron in the ink. Titanium's findings were called into question in the early 1980s, when scientists at the University of California, Davis examined the map using PIXE particles and found small amounts of them—the first time PIXE technology had been used. For the ink analysis, however, subsequent PIXE data were collected over the following decades, and cumulatively showed that the discrepancy was due to errors in the UC-Davis team's work. However, Yale University historian Paul Friedman said in a 2011 speech that he believed Wineland's plan was "unfortunately fake." By 2018, Richard Hark, a conservation scientist at Yale University, was performing a new worldwide chemical analysis, along with anatase, and concluded that it was modern ink. At this point, the document appeared to be forged. Combine all elements of a document, using previously unavailable tools and techniques. Marie-François Lemy and Paula Zayat, bodyguards at Yale University, have worked with Yale Institute for Cultural Preservation scholars on various experiments. They subjected the ink to X-ray spectroscopy to determine how the various elements were distributed throughout the map. This helps with the "big picture" data set, rather than focusing on separate points.Magnification/ X-ray spectroscopy (XRF) showed the presence of titanium in all lines and text of the map. Bodyguards at Yale University found no signs of iron, sulfur, or copper, which are commonly used in medieval iron gallon ink. In the case of the Vinland Insola section of the map, there was a high level of titanium and small amounts of barium matching commercial white dyes in the 1920s. For comparison, the research team analyzed the inks used in 50 medieval manuscripts from the 15th century in Beinecke's collection, all of which contain significantly lower amounts of titanium than the inks used for mapping, as well as higher levels of iron. Follow-up analysis using diffusion electron microscopy (FE-SEM) ruled out the possibility of anatase occurring naturally.
So the map of Winland is definitely a recent fake - and probably intentional. But it is written in modern ink. "The modified engraving is certainly an attempt to convince people that the map was created at the same time as the Speculum Historiale," says Clemens. "This is strong evidence that this is a forgery and not an innocent slander by a third party chosen by someone else, although it does not tell us who committed this deception."
The team also reviewed medieval texts from Speculum and Hystoria. Radiocarbon dating shows that these texts date from between 1400 and 1460, according to the skin used to create the Winland map. So it appears that the forger used the blank pages from the original 15th century manuscript to create the map. The speculum paper bears the mark of a paper mill in Basel, Switzerland, and the speculum and hystoria scripts resemble the handwriting of a scribe. Apparently, the two volumes were often interconnected on the basis of loss, as the recent discovery of a 14th-century copy of the speculum with a copy of Hystoria appears in the final volume. Clemens was relieved that the question of the reliability (or lack thereof) of the Vinland map had finally been resolved. “Things like the Wineland map take up a lot of intellectual airspace,” he said. "We don't want this discussion to continue. There are some very interesting and wonderful things to explore that can actually tell us something about exploration and travel in the medieval world."
All in all: New analysis shows that the Wineland map is definitely fake
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