This isn't the first time an unexpectedly deadly bacterium has appeared in the United States.
Deadly soil bacteria in the tropics and subtropics have mysteriously infected three people in three different US states and killed at least one. A health warning from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. p>
This distinction is important not only for infection prevention measures but also for clinical care. Infection with the bacteria B. pseudomallei causes myeloma, which can be fatal in 10% to 50% of cases. People with diabetes, kidney disease, chronic lung disease, and alcoholism are at greater risk. But symptoms can be vague and very variable. These include localized pain, swelling, fever, sores and abscesses, even coughing, chest pain, headache, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, abdominal discomfort, joint pain, misalignment, weight loss, stomach or chest pain, and muscle pain. Joint pain. . and seizures.
Symptoms are severe bloating, and myelofibrosis is sometimes called "the great imitation" because it is often confused with other serious diseases such as tuberculosis. Without a travel history that may indicate exposure to B. pseudomallei bacteria, doctors may misdiagnose it — and it can quickly lead to death. B. pseudomallei is resistant to many antibiotic treatments. Delays in misdiagnosis and treatment can result in a systemic infection that is fatal in 90% of cases. Cough and CDC symptoms were reported in three new cases occurring in two adults and one child: shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, intermittent fever and rash on the trunk, abdomen, and face. Cases have occurred in Texas, Kansas, and Minnesota. The person identified in March was a murderer. He had several risk factors for CHD, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cirrhosis, and died ten days after his hospitalization. Of the two remaining, one is still in the hospital and the other has been moved to a transitional care unit.
None of the three patients or their family members reported traveling outside the Americas. In a health warning, the CDC advised health care providers: "Consider shingles in patients with contagious diseases, even if they have no history of travel to their home." This is a recommendation that has already been made.
This is not the first time that a US population has contracted a mysterious infection from B. pseudomallei without a final flight. In 2018, a 63-year-old Texan who had not been out of state for 30 years suffered a near-fatal case of wheezing. Federal and state health researchers completely soaked the man in a lack of running water in an effort to find the source of the infection. They sampled the soil, roof, plumbing, and water tanks, including the 1,600-gallon water tank that the man climbs up each month to clean. They found no trace of B. pseudomallei.
But similar to the three new cases, the B. pseudomallei strain that infected a Texas resident in 2018 was genetically related to other strains that emerged in the United States. In fact, the closest genetic match to the 2018 Texas case was a strain collected from the Texas case in 2004 in the same city, Atakusa. In this case, the Texas resident does not appear to have recently reported a history of contamination.
In a 2018 case report released last year, health researchers highlighted the 2004 connection between the CDC and the Texas Department of Health. In particular, they noted, "the initial hypothesis was that a 2004 patient contracted it 62 years before the onset of the disease, while serving in Southeast Asia during World War II." The researchers wrote that the strain of B. pseudomallei infected with the Texas case in 2004 was not related to the Southeast Asian strains. This strain has been linked to other strains in the United States.Advertising
In addition to the 2004 case of Texas, the closest dimension to the 2018 Texas genetic race was the 1999 case in Arizona. Although isolated from a disease that recently migrated from El Salvador, it is genetically more similar to North American isolates than anything found in Central America. In this case, it was clear that B. pseudomallei bacteria may have been native to the United States. They wrote: p>
The source of the patient's infection is unknown. However, genetic analysis showed that patient isolate groups with existing isolates collected from other patients in the southwestern United States. TX2004 and TX2018b isolates were collected and collected ≈ 15 years apart from patients living in the same state of Texas at disease onset, indicating that B. pseudomallei may have been present in the area. The researchers were also skeptical about the suggestion that B. pseudomallei infection might be "reactivated," as well as speculation about the 2004 case of Texas. "Instead of the 62-year incubation period, a patient infected with TX2004 might be exposed to a local, non-local site," they wrote. known before symptoms start. The researchers said the idea of long-term incubation may have misled previous research into the possibility that the dangerous bacteria were endemic to the United States. They report a case of kalma (word) reported in 1991 of a patient living in New Mexico who had not left the country in years. Physicians who evaluated the patient reported infection after exposure to the Vietnam War 18 years ago.
Importantly, the CDC and Texas researchers concluded that "B. pseudomallei infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient with compatible disease, even without reporting of B. pseudomallei infection." History of travel.”
“Only when B. pseudomallei has been isolated from the environment can it be confirmed with certainty that B. pseudomallei is native to the continental United States.” However, “raising awareness among health care and health care personnel Laboratory diagnostics on shingles as a potentially endemic disease in the southwestern United States is critical to improving case outcomes and preventing laboratory exposure.” p>
2015 report, which reported an increase in the incidence of syphilis in the United States from 2008 to 2013. Although most of the 34 people identified in the report were travel related, these two individuals did not They are. “Given the slight increase in the number of reported cases of syphilis since 2009, sulfur can be considered an emerging disease in the United States,” the authors wrote. “Physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the increase in cases reported in the states. United States, particularly by identifying affected individuals with no history of travel to Native American areas or known risk factors.”
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