Astronomical events of Azar 1401; From the Jozai meteor shower to the passing of the Yalda night
Autumn weather is gradually ending with the shining of the stars in December and provides a good opportunity to watch celestial bodies in a clear sky and away from pollution; An opportunity that reaches its peak with the passing of Yalda night.
In the month of Azar, the height of the sun decreases again in the sky until it reaches Yalda night at the end of the month. The moon, which these days hosts NASA's Artemis 1 mission, approaches its final phase at the beginning of December and then gradually takes on a brighter appearance. Shamsi forms. Planets that this month will be one of the best times to observe all of them in a night observation camp.
This month also hosts one of the most spectacular meteor showers and under a clear sky the number of Gemini meteors can be up to 150. Arrive on time. If you are interested in watching these events, you can prepare a map of the night sky to get to know the position of each object better. h3>Tuesday 1 Azar (November 22)
The first day of Azar does not include any significant astronomical event for terrestrial observers. The only important phenomenon of this day is the peak of the "alpha Monocerotids" meteor shower at 03:00 AM, which is not considered one of the famous meteor showers with about 5 meteors per hour.
Wednesday, December 2 ( November 23)
At 06:15 in the morning Tehran time, the last crescent of the month will be formed, which will be difficult to see with the naked eye. At the beginning of the next day, the new moon will be a guest in the sky.
Thursday 3 Azar (November 24)
The new moon will form at 02:27 in the morning. At this time, the Earth's natural moon will be in the constellation Scorpio and 2.3 degrees south of the sun. As the new moon moves between the earth and the sun, because the sun only illuminates the far side of the moon, this object will not be visible to any point on earth. In the following nights, this companion of the earth shines again in the west of the sky after the sunset.
The planet Jupiter is also on this day at 15:30 in the position of the second residence (part of the apparent right and left positions of a planet from The view of the earth) is placed. That is, when its return movement, which started at the end of July, ends. This provides a good opportunity for evening observation of the planet, and even with the use of a telescope, the small, round, black shadow of the Galilean moon "Io" (Io) can be observed on Jupiter's disk.
Asteroid Pallas changing course
Credit: Chris Vaughan
In this The day will also see one of the famous main belt asteroids, Pallas, stop moving eastward among the stars of the constellation Canis Major and begin a retrograde journey that will last until February 2023.
This dwarf planet will rise from magnitude 8.2 late in the evening and throughout the night with the help of a telescope, it will be close to the midpoint between the two stars in the tail of the big dog, Aludra and Aludra. "Wezen" will be visible.
Friday 4 Azar (November 25)
At 16:53, the first crescent moon will appear in the sky until the month of Jumadi al-Awal 1444 Hijri. Start a lunar month. This sight can be easily seen by the unaided eye in the southwest horizon.
Saturday 5 Azar (November 26)
At 05:00 in the morning, the moon will be in perihelion and 362 It will be 1,800 kilometers from the earth. This closest distance provides a good opportunity to see the crescent moon.
Monday 7 Azar (November 28)
The first hours of this day coincide with the peak of rain. It is a faint meteor in the month of Azar, whose ZHR (number of meteors per hour) measure is only 3.
As the sky darkens in the evening of Monday, Azar 7, the yellow-colored dot of "Saturn" (Saturn) is about 7 degrees (the size of more than a palm's width) to the upper left of the young crescent moon shines in the sky's southern horizon.
As the moon approaches its sunset at around 21:30 local horizon, its orbital motion It causes it to get closer to Saturn.
Tuesday, November 29
At 17:14, the apparent distance between the moon and Saturn reaches 6 degrees, and due to being near the horizon, It provides an excellent opportunity to photograph ground features such as buildings.
The waxing moon will be in the southwest sky on Tuesday evening also at a distance of 4 degrees (a few finger widths) east of one. It will be located among the asteroids of the main belt named "Vesta".
This distance is as It's a shame that this asteroid with a magnitude of 7.6 can easily be placed in the field of view of a binocular camera. Sky watchers in western time zones will see the moon closer to Vesta.
With a simple telescope, even the binary star 53 Aquarii, which shines just north-northwest of Vesta, can be used to locate the asteroid.
Wednesday, November 9 (November 30)
On Wednesday, December 9 at 18:06 (9:36 am EST) the moon will complete the first quadrant of its journey around the earth and at this time in the constellation "Aquarius" or "Abriz", is located below and between the bright planets Jupiter and Saturn.
Telescope owners can see the 9.2 magnitude asteroid Juno, which is less than the diameter of the moon. It is located at the bottom left, see. The evenings around first quadrilateral are some of the best times to see the Moon's features, when they are dramatically illuminated by low-angle sunlight, especially along the boundary that separates the Moon's bright and dark hemispheres.
First quarter of the moon
Credit: NASA Goddard
In the morning of Tehran time (late evening in the eastern time zone), the planet Mars will be at its closest distance to the Earth a week before it will meet on December 8. At this time, Mars will be 81,446,000 km or 4.53 light minutes away from us.
Using a telescope, the maximum size of the planet's apparent disc reaches 17.2 arc seconds and many details It will be visible from its surface. This red planet will shine in the southeast sky, between the horns of the constellation Taurus. Mars will continue to be visible in the sky until the opposition.
The reason for the difference in the time of closest approach and opposition is that the distance between the elliptical orbits of Earth and Mars is increasing at this time of the year. .
Friday 11 Azar (December 2)
At 00:42 in the morning, the moon will be next to the planet Jupiter with an angular separation of 4.8 degrees, which is between the constellations of Cetus and Pisces in the south. They shine in the eastern part of the sky.
Sunday 13 Azar (December 4)
At 12:30 PM, the planet Neptune will reach its second residence position and its return movement will end. On this day after sunset, observation conditions are very good and it can be seen well using binoculars.> At 20:22, the moon and Uranus will disappear, which will be visible using binoculars and a telescope. At this time, the magnitude of Uranus is 5.5.
Wednesday 16 Azar (December 7)
At 02:21 in the morning, the 2.8 degree conjunction of the Moon and the Parvin star cluster (M45) takes place and provides an excellent opportunity for night sky photographers.
Thursday 17 Azar (December 8)
At 02:06 Tehran time, the meeting of the moon and the planet Mars and the star "Debran" We will see Aldebaran, at which time the angular separation of the Moon from Aldebaran will be 7.2 degrees, and its distance from the planet Mars will reach 1.4 degrees at 06:37.
07 38: The full moon will occur and at 09:14 the planet Mars will be in opposition position and it will be a good opportunity to observe it.
Friday 18 Azar (December 9)
18:09 We will see the 3.1 degree comparison of the moon and star cluster M35, which you can use optical tools to see. It is an open star cluster in the constellation "Gemini" that is 2,800 light years away from Earth and its apparent magnitude reaches 5.5.
Sunday 20 Azar (December 11) )
At 06:40 there is a conjunction between the moon and the star "Pollux" with an angular separation of 3.4 degrees. This star is also located in the constellation of two bodies, and with its golden color, it is considered the 18th brightest star in the sky. The moon is at the peak of its orbit and its distance from the earth reaches 405,900 km. At 20:43 in the morning, the moon will be at a distance of 5 degrees from the star cluster of the Honey Beehive (M44), which requires an optical instrument to observe it.
Wednesday, December 14
At 06:42, the moon is next to the star Qalbal Asad with an angular separation of 5.2 degrees. This view will be visible in the dawn sky and the horizon between west and southwest. At 16:30, the peak of the Geminid meteor shower will occur with about 150 meteors per hour.
Friday, December 16
At 13:26, the moon will square The end is coming.
Monday 28 Azar (December 19)
At 02:41 in the morning, the moon shines beautifully next to the star "Spica" or "Samak Azal". At this time, the angular separation of these two bodies will be 5.4 degrees.
Wednesday, December 21
At 18:30, the planet Mercury will be in eastern longitude, which is 20. It is 1 degree and the best time to watch it in the evening sky.
Winter solstice will not happen on 30 Azar and its exact time will be 01:18 am on January 1. At the same time, 30 Azar, which is the night before the beginning of winter, promises the passing of the longest night of the year and Iranians celebrate Yalda.
The lunar and solar months coincide to a large extent in the last third of autumn. At the beginning of Azar, the month of Rabi al-Thani passes its final phases and thus The observation conditions are difficult, but in the absence of disturbing light, suitable conditions are provided for watching the night sky.
Then the crescent of the new moon is formed, which is easily seen with the naked eye and provides a favorable opportunity for hunting the crescent. Marks. Gradually, the opportunity to watch the moon in the evening increases until at the end of Azar, this time extends to the whole night. It will also meet the famous star clusters in the sky.
Although the name Azar has been tied to the constellation "Sagittarius" since the distant past, but due to the change of axis The rotation of the earth over thousands of years, today the burning star of the solar system travels through the constellation "Scorpius" in December.
The passage of the sun through the constellation Scorpius in December
Being in the autumn season, the length of the day is still It is decreasing and from about 10 hours and 7 minutes at the beginning of the month to about 9 hours and 44 minutes at the end of the month. which leads to the horizon of Tehran from 06:46 and 16:53 respectively, to 07:10 and 16:54.
In Azar, a suitable position is provided for observing the smallest planet of the solar system. Although at the beginning of the month, due to its proximity to the sun, it is not possible to observe it, but from the middle of December, you can watch it a few minutes before sunset.
The Crescent of Jupiter
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Michael Benson/Kinetikon Pictures
This The process progresses to the point where at the end of the month, the planet Jupiter reaches the maximum eastern elongation, and the elusive planet of the solar system can be observed from an hour before sunset to an hour after.
At the beginning of Azar, the planet Venus has the same status as Mercury and cannot be seen due to its proximity to the sun. In the middle of the month, however, its observational condition gradually improves and it can be seen in the southwestern sky shortly before sunset.
Composite image of the planet Venus
Credit: ARTUR PLAWGO/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY via Getty Images
In the following days Also, this planet is still in the evening and until the end of the month there will be more opportunity to watch it. Venus shines well between Mercury and the Sun, but there is still less opportunity to observe it than Mercury.
The red planet of the solar system is a good guest of the fiery sky of Azar. At the beginning of the month, shortly after sunset, it rises from the sky between east and northeast and will be in the sky all night long.
Moving towards the end of the month, Mars rises and sets earlier, but still There will be a very good opportunity to watch it in the evening and morning sky.
Composite photo of Mars
Credit: Petmal/Getty Images
But perhaps the peak of the events of the planet Bahram in the month of Azar can be considered its meeting with the full moon on Azar 17 (December 8) ) will take place and shortly after sunset, spectacular photos of them can be recorded on the northwest horizon.
The gas giant of the solar system will be in the evening sky in November. This planet rises from the eastern horizon at noon, but due to the brightness of the sun, it is not possible to observe it. Going towards the sunset, you can see its glow in the southeast part of the sky.
As the days of Azar pass, the opportunity to observe this bright giant will decrease and its sunrise and sunset will be earlier. Nevertheless, you can still watch it from moments before sunset until the morning of the next day.
Telescopic view of Jupiter
Credit: NASA, ESA, A. Simon/GSFC, M.H. Wong/UCB
Observing Jupiter in a night camp while turning on the speaker and listening to the special Gospel music for this planet will immerse you in an experience beyond the material world that is definitely worth experiencing.p> View the portable Bluetooth speaker in SafirSoft
The Lord of the Rings is also going to show a lot of charms in Azar. This planet is also evening, and one hour before sunset and a few hours after, you can see Saturn in the southwest sky, rising and setting before Jupiter. We are getting closer to the moon, its sunrise and sunset will occur earlier and there will be less opportunity to observe it.
Saturn and some of its moons
But an event that should not be missed is the comparison of Saturn with the Moon, which On the 7th and 8th of Azar, spectacular scenery was created he does. Using a telescope, you can even observe its famous moons such as Titan.
The observation conditions of Uranus in December are very suitable and this ice giant of the solar system can be well seen. He even observed the evening sky using a binocular camera.
Credit: Chris Vaughan
To observe it, it is enough to lie down under the sky after dark and directly search for the middle region of the three constellations, Taurus and Cetus with binoculars. Take a look at this distant blue planet.View from a comfortable chair in SafirSoft
The observational position of Uranus will remain almost the same until the end of the month, and it can be observed from sunset to dawn using observational instruments.
In December, the farthest planet of the solar system has acceptable observation conditions and it is evening. This planet is Jupiter's companion this month, and with optical tools such as binoculars, it can be found next to the bright planet Jupiter.
Credit: Chris Vaughan
Celestial mechanics have arranged the arrangement so that Neptune is from one hour after sunset to the first hour of the next morning. It can be seen in the sky between west and southwest. As we move towards the end of the month, however, this viewing opportunity will decrease until Neptune will set at 23:25.
Cover photo: 2020 Gemini meteor shower in Texas.
Credit: Nathan Myhrvold
Sources: Space, Astronomy, Photo Pills, Time and Date, SeaSky, Nojum Magazine