The state of quantum computing systems: current designs and future challenges

The Electronic Numerical Analyzer and Computer, or ENIAC as it is known, is a permanent product of World War II. It is generally attributed to the beginning of the modern computing era, although its main purpose was much simpler in terms of calculation and was intended as a World War II ballistic calculator.

This 30-ton computer consumes 160 kilowatts of electricity, contains more than 1,800 square feet (167 square meters) and more than 17,000 vacuum tubes. It could do 5,000 additions, 357 multiplications or 38 divisions per second, which was unprecedented at the time. However, its real and new feature was that it was the first programmable machine that could be used in conjunction with its original purpose.

It took nearly 50 years between the invention of the vacuum tube transistor and ENIAC to build the Be. building; However, the realization of a programmable system opened the door for humans to reach the Moon...

A programmable environment opens the door for innovators in various fields to conquer the computing infrastructure. It took nearly 50 years between the invention of the vacuum tube transistor and the manufacture of ENIAC. However, the realization of a programmable system opened the door for humans to reach the Moon, countless medical technologies and techniques, and an unprecedented time for vaccine development. The state of quantum computing systems: current designs and future challenges ENIAC was the first programmable system for all-purpose digital computers.

Quantum computing "systems" are still evolving, so the entire system model is in place. While the pursuit of quantitative supremacy between countries and firms is increasing, it is still in the early stages of calling it 'competitive'.

There are only a few potential qubit technologies that can be programmed in practice. The environment emerges with abstract ideas that are not yet fully developed, and there are relatively few (albeit very exciting) quantum algorithms of well-known scientists and clinicians. Part of the challenge is that simulating quantum applications and technology in classical computers is extremely difficult and almost impractical - meaning that classical computers themselves have outdone their quantum counterparts! p> The State of Quantum Computing Systems: Current Designs and Future Challenges

However, governments are allocating money to help bring humans into the next great age of computing. The past decade has seen significant advances in qubit technologies, quantum circuits, and assembly techniques being realized, and this development has led to more (good) competition for the realization of complete quantum computers.

ICYMI. What is quantum computing?

In our first article in this two-part series, we look at the physical aspects that make quantum computing fundamentally attractive to modern researchers and the potential technical and social benefits that make it work, focus. Valuable investment.

In this article, we will focus on the quantum computing suite, explore recent advances in qubit technologies, how to program them for computing, and challenges and open questions.

Let's get started!

Basics Summary

In the first part of this series, we discussed the different aspects that make classical computing fundamentally different from quantum computing. We encourage you to head over to this article for more details, but here are a few key points: Quantum bits (qubits) are not binary: they are a set of values ​​from 0 and 1, and thus are much more eloquent than quantum bits. digital bit. Show a property called entanglement. This property means that two (or more) qubits are inherently related to each other. Einstein described these as "far shadows". Qubits separate over time. In other words, preserving the value of qubits is a major challenge for achieving Fault Tolerance (FT) systems in the future.

Given these physical building blocks, what kind of technologies can really use these features? State of Quantum Computing Systems: Current Designs and Future Challenges Qubit Technologies

Designing qubits for quantum computers is no easy task. Quantum systems require extremely precise particle separation and the ability to manipulate complex physical systems with a degree of precision.

In recent years, several competing technologies, including ionic qubits, have been confined. , superconducting qubits, semiconductor spin qubits, linear optics and myorana qubits. The general philosophy of qubit design can be summarized as follows (called DiVincenzo standards): Qubits with a suitable property for a scalable system The ability to initialize qubits (to compute) Qubit stability (ie, long inconsistencies). Supporting general computational guidelines for custom computations the ability to measure qubits (eg, computation-based readouts) In particular, initiating and executing computations on qubits requires interactions on the system, which inherently breaks the isolation required to stabilize qubits. This is one of the reasons why building a quantum computer is fundamentally difficult. State of quantum computing systems: current designs and future challenges

Graphic: 1) On the left, superconducting qubits connected by microwave capacitors (IBM Research). 2) On the right, the linear chain of trapped ions interconnected by laser interactions.) Trapping. Ionic qubits and superconducting qubits. Trapped ionic qubits

Trapped ionic qubits act on atoms. Since such a qubit uses the properties of atomic ions, it can naturally take advantage of quantum mechanical properties through the atoms' internal energy levels. Common ions such as Ca +, Ba + and Yb + (among many others) can be used.

Conceptually, the idea is to define the two atomic energy levels of the ions and define them as energy levels 0 and width 1. . The choice of two levels determines how qubits are controlled: a higher separation between energy levels (eg, 10^10 Hz, around the frequency of light) means using lasers to excite ions and transfer them from one state to another. else. These units are called optical qubits. State of Quantum Computing Systems: Current Designs and Future Challenges

On the other hand, very small qubits have lower energy decay (about 10.10 Hz). This second type is located in the microwave frequency and therefore can be controlled by microwave pulses. The advantage of microwave-controlled single-qubit gates is their low error rate (10^-6), while the disadvantage is that it is difficult to focus on separate ions due to their high wavelength.

Additionally, lower error rates provide a compelling technology to be the future quality of the NISQ era. While all of this is promising, trapped ionic qubits have drawbacks, the biggest of which are that they are slower than superconducting qubits. This feature may be important for calculating real time errors coming out of the system. In addition, there is a limit to the number of ions that can be trapped and created for a reaction. All this does not diminish the promise of trapped ion qubits.

Superconducting qubits

In contrast to trapped ion qubits, superconducting qubits are implemented using lithographic printed circuit board elements. In essence, these are "artificial atoms" that have desirable quantum mechanical properties. Prior to the recent advent of ionized qubit technology, superconducting qubits attracted considerable industry interest because they closely followed current integrated circuit technology.

A superconducting qubit revolves around an electric current circuit element called the Josephson spin connection. It is basically an insulator between two superconductors. Below the critical temperature, the superconducting resistance reaches zero and forms a pair of electrons called the Cooper pair. The State of Quantum Computing Systems: Current Designs and Future Challenges

Conventional electrons have a spin of +-1 (known as a Fermion), while Cooper pairs have a total spin of 0 (a boson). In the Josephson connection, the Cooper pairs can create a quantum tunneling and create the discrete energy levels needed to build a qubit. The number of Cooper tunneling pairs is related across the connection to the quantum state. There are several types of superconducting qubits, including charge qubits, flow qubits, and phase qubits, which differ in circuit design and (in turn) their performance and physical mechanisms for implementing, controlling, and measuring qubits. Superconducting qubits have opened the door to a variety of technologies, including silicon-based spin qubits, and have artificial support longer than trapped ion qubits. At this point, there is no clear winner in technology: each technology has its own advantages with different backers. At the same time, fundamental limitations contribute to further innovation across the board to identify ideal qubits for future quantum computing systems. They require different physical processes to process information. A quantum gate is basically a logical transformation represented by matrices of units.

Remember that while classical arithmetic operates under the laws of Boolean algebra, quantum computations operate under the laws of linear algebra. Thus, the transformation / gate is basically the process of changing the state of a qubit into another, which can be interpreted based on the overlap of values ​​0 and 1. State of quantum computing systems: current designs and future challenges

One of the unique aspects of quantum gates (sometimes difficult to understand) is that they differ from the classical concept of von Neumann architecture. John von Neumann was a computer engineer working on the Manhattan Project in the 1940s when he heard about the development of ENIAC. By introducing the concept of designing stored applications, he found a way to build ENIAC faster. In modern nomenclature, this in practice means the separation of memory (for example, where a program is stored) from arithmetic units (the place where information is processed). This separation of interests has been instrumental in making machines more efficient from a human point of view - debugging times can change to write better programs, and computer engineers (almost independently) can focus on optimizing each memory and computational architecture for better performance. However, quantum architecture does not have such a simple separation, because "computation" occurs with physical transformations in "qubit memory", which is mainly related to technology. Although this may sound a bit strange to a traditional computer programmer, it has a unique advantage: quantum computers can make the most of reverse computing.

Inverse operations are a process in which the transfer function visualizes ancient arithmetic modes. The new items are a one-on-one job. In other words, knowing the modes of the output logic uniquely identifies the modes of the input logic of the arithmetic operation. For example, a NOT gate is an inverse function that operates on bits (or qubits). By extension, the unattended gate (or CNOT) uses logical bits/bits, where the second bit controls how/when the NOT gate is restored. By analogy, the CNOT gate can be thought of as a reversible XOR gate. Adding another control bit/qubit introduces a tovoli gate, where you can control which control bit enters the CNOT gate.

How useful and appropriate is this for quantum computing? Well, a Toffoli gate is a universal reversible arithmetic, which means you can implement any (possibly irreversible) Boolean circuit using only Toffoli gates. In von Neumann's computational design, this is similar to a NAND (Not-AND) gate, and its generalizability is the reason why today we can program a computer to perform almost any arithmetic operation (and execute millions of them very quickly). p> The State of Quantum Computing Systems: Current Designs and Future Challenges

Quantum logic gates popular by name. Source: Wikipedia

But why stop at reversible computations? Another important component of quantum gates is their relationship to stochastic computing. Many classic algorithms make use of randomization because the natural world behaves unpredictably and (somewhat) statistically. Quantum computing already does this because randomness is a fundamental property closely related to interference.

In other words, when measuring a quantum system, you need a lot of calculations. (which are all random in nature due to atomic properties), and your output is the probability distribution of the samples you generated to get the result. While it may seem like a new computing paradigm, it is actually closer to the fundamental nature of the universe, because very few things in the universe are certain (except for death and taxes, as Benjamin Franklin said in 1789).

Other common quantum gates (not discussed here but very relevant) are the Hadamard gate, the controlled Hadamard gate, the Pauli gate, the SWAP gate, the SWAP controlled gate, and more (see pattern?). Despite the importance of these different algorithms, the key point is that these gates are essentially linear algebraic operations and can be used to change the state of qubits for computations.

Quantum Compilation

So far, we've gone "up" in describing a quantum computing system: quantum physical properties can be recorded using qubits, which in turn can be operated with various information-processing logic gates, with the goal of implementing a high-level quantum algorithm. . The relationship between high-level quantum algorithms and low-level quantum devices requires the realization of a quantum interpreter. The quantitative compiler is a set of transformations and improvements to the program's quantitative average representation (QIR).

Let's open these terms up a bit.

In the classical sense, a compiler is a program that has the task of converting a high-level programming language (such as C++, Python, etc.) into a machine-defined instruction set structure (such as x86, ARM, Power, RISC-V, etc.) till then). ISA forms a contract between the programmer and the machine, allowing users to write code that the compiler "translates" to the machine for understanding. Then the machine executes the program execution instructions using the compiled "instructions".

https://safirsoft The State of Quantum Computing Systems: Current Designs and Future Challenges

The instruction set of a quantum computer is the gates described above: CNOT gates, Hadamard gates, Clifford Gates, T+ and other qubit operations. However, the work of a quantum compiler is more complex than "translating" a higher level language (such as cQASM, Quil, Q#) into a series of gates. Quantum physics must also take into account the basic calculations.

For example, qubits can be entangled, so their interactions must be programmed accordingly. Qubits also separate over time. So you need the optimum configuration to minimize (and consider) the nature of the operating noise. Interactions between qubits may also be limited by the underlying technology: not all qubits can physically interact with each other, so the compiler must be aware of hardware limitations when running an algorithm. If that doesn't seem enough to the quantum interpreter, a very important phenomenon called quantum teleportation adds to the complexity. Quantum teleportation uses entanglement to transmit information through "distant" qubits. Although this feature may seem far-fetched, it can help reduce communication costs through scheduling, but it definitely needs to be properly managed by the system.

Quantum nonsense alone is a hot field of research that has exactly all its complexities. While classical computer systems are designed with beautiful abstract shapes that allow innovation at discrete levels in the computational ensemble, the 'system' of quantum computing is still a work in progress.

"The key to successful implementation of quantum algorithms in NISQ hardware is the selective sharing of information in layers of the stack so that applications can make the best use of finite qubits," said Chung of the University of Chicago. The point of quantum aggregation is to do this for us. However, it is still in its infancy.

Error tolerance and noise reduction

Today, quantum computing is largely synonymous with error tolerance and noise reduction - the name is quite literal: Scale Quantum Computer Noise Medium (NISQ).

Most of the system bits are used to counteract quantum system inconsistencies and physical and algorithmic compensation for computational errors.

A basic metric used to measure duration. There is a quantum state of quantum ambiguity in the time of its continuity, in the time of the harmony of namida mi shoud. In the opinion of a reference, the time of Amrozi harmony is in the order of one minute, approximately, like the time of Andazgiri Michoud. The perception of kanid ke har bet dar pordazanda, ali shama har, a coincidence phase, arzash khod ra change mi duhd... anjam har kari (useful) complete impractical khawahid bod! , Dur Waqih May Tawanid Angam Dhaid. Ziadi accounting (meaning a qubit switch) was carried out by Chenin Charchob Zamani Anjam Dheed, as for the Gouritam high-toulani procedure for a period of time as a petri quantum ra n shan mi dhand with a car as many meters as possible. " 2111/11854-10.jpg" alt=" My Accounting Quantum System Setting: Real-time and Chall-sha-ha-i-indeh" >

Your Technique, Raej Amroza, Pra-i-Dosazi-Tabbashi Cubits are the length of the calculations that are used for the benefit of the people, with a car similar to that of a high-classic system. In a special phase, quantum error correction (QECC) mainly ECC modular ra mikand reflex, jayi ke pithai (qu) additional with the opinion of fault diagnosis and correction of the mishaud. If you want to correct quantum errors, you can correct quantum errors, as well as 9 quantum bits of quantum errors. With the phrase "Diger", "Pre-Chorus", "Kubet d'Or System", "Mofeed", "Mofid", "Raa Angam, May Dahd", with 8 additional numbers, "Niaz Dared Ta, reassuring, Choid Ke", "Drsty Car Me Kind".

QECC Tanha Rah Bray raised her mistake You System Nest. System Quantum Roche Deger Campeille Coincidence Est. It is a coincidence of a coincidence with a quantum orbit, a quantum afferent kinem and a coincidental orbit with an independent orbit, Miangin Bagirim. The current turn is like the effect of Noise, the direction of the orbit, it is possible, it varies greatly, the Noise is the waiting resource, the orbit of the orbit is multiple, it has a chance form, the organization of mi shud. Basically, it is the mathematics of Hoshmandaneh Bray Gibran, the benefit of a kenid, the current as an error, the straight ra, the account of the account, and the account is received. kyubiteha dar length translation of madar sakhtavzari. ، کالیبراسیون مجدد نرخ خطای سیستم و نگاشت مجدد کیوبیت ها و به حداقل رساندن طول مدار برای "سرعت بخشیدن" به محاسبات قبل از اینکه decoherence شروع شود.

همه این تکنیک ها به دلیل کنترل نادقیق سخت افزار کوانتومی و ناپیوستگی طبیعی وجود دارند. از ایالت ها در حالی که بسیاری از این تکنیک‌ها مختص دوران NISQ هستند، هدف اصلی درک بهتر خطاها و کاهش آن‌ها برای دوره نهایی تحمل خطا (FT) کامپیوترهای کوانتومی است.

بسیاری معتقدند که دوران FT زمانی که برتری کوانتومی واقعاً برای بسیاری از کاربردها قابل تحقق است.

خلاصه و نکات مهم

ما راه درازی را در توسعه رایانه‌های کوانتومی پیموده‌ایم، با بسیاری از شرکت‌ها و تأسیسات تحقیقاتی که تلاش می‌کنند تا به طور کامل ویژگی‌های کوانتومی را به دست آورند. از جهان ما در حالی که بسیاری از تئوری های بنیادی در حال حاضر در حال پیاده سازی هستند، "سیستم های" کوانتومی کامل همچنان در حال توسعه هستند.

فناوری های رقیب کیوبیت، سیستم های پر سر و صدا و عدم انسجام، و یک کامپایلر باورنکردنی "همه چیز" هنوز چالش هایی برای آن هستند. مسابقه برای برتری کوانتومی علاوه بر این، دوره NISQ که ما در حال حاضر تجربه می کنیم و دوره FT آینده ممکن است بسیار متفاوت به نظر برسد. «پشته» محاسباتی مدرن هنوز در مراحل اولیه توسعه است و بسیاری از فناوری‌های کوانتومی جدید و هیجان‌انگیز مطمئناً در آینده نزدیک وارد خواهند شد.

در حالی که محاسبات کوانتومی جهان را طوفانی نکرده است (هنوز). می توان مزایا و پیامدهای در اختیار داشتن رایانه های کوانتومی را تصور کرد. در حالی که پایه های مکانیک کوانتومی نزدیک به یک قرن قدمت دارد، محققان و پزشکان اکنون شروع به طراحی واقعی این سیستم ها و حل بسیاری از چالش های تحقیقاتی و مهندسی جذاب کرده اند. با توجه به سرمایه‌گذاری بسیاری از بازیکنان در مسابقه کوانتومی، تعداد کیوبیت‌ها در یک سیستم تقریباً هر روز در حال افزایش است، و این که سیستم‌های واقعاً تحمل‌کننده خطا به واقعیت تبدیل شوند، فقط یک مسئله زمان خواهد بود.

The state of quantum computing systems: current designs and future challenges
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